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Research Article
Type specimens of Mollusca described by Col. George Montagu in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery, Exeter and The Natural History Museum, London
expand article infoP. Graham Oliver, Holly Morgenroth§, Andreia Salvador|
‡ National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom
§ Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery, Exeter, United Kingdom
| The Natural History Museum, London, United Kingdom
Open Access

Abstract

A complete list of new molluscan taxa introduced by Col. George Montagu (1753–1815) is presented. The available type material of these taxa are itemised and illustrated. The majority are present in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery, Exeter with a smaller number in the Natural History Museum, London. The historic background of both collections is reviewed with special reference to the many non-British species spuriously introduced into Testacea Britannica and its Supplement.

Key Words

Catalogue, British shells, Spurious specimens, Biography, D'Orville, Laskey, Bryer

Introduction

Dedicated to Ron Cleevely 20/6/1934–26/2/2017 An ardent student of Col. George Montagu and Eliza D’Orville

This paper is primarily a catalogue aimed at increasing access to type and potential type specimens of molluscan species described by Colonel George Montagu (1753–1815). The focus is on the presence and status of extant material but these specimens date from the Regency period when taxonomy was in its infancy and was carried out by an eclectic group of naturalists. The biographical details of these early collectors are as interesting as the shells they described but these are stories for a different time and not explored in detail here.

Wider perspectives on Montagu can be gleaned from Cleevely (1979), Swanton (1908) and Cummings (1915). For his relationships with other naturalists of the day, especially William Elford Leach we refer the reader to Harrison and Smith (2008). Montagu is also discussed in relation to collecting versus science by Tobin (2014) in her exploration of the Duchess of Portland collection. The following details are extracted from these references.

Montagu had always been interested in natural history but in his early years was a career soldier rising to the rank of Colonel. Soldiering started early, and at the age of seventeen he was commissioned as an officer with postings in England and Ireland. He was posted to America in 1776 and fought in the War of Independence, where despite the conflict he found time to shoot and collected, to what to him, were exotic birds. In 1773 he married his first wife, Ann Courtenay (niece of the 3rd Earl of Bute, John Stuart) with whom he had six children. In 1777 he left the regular army but obtained a commission in the Wiltshire Regiment of militia rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel. In 1789 he wrote to Gilbert White “that were he not bound by conjugal attachment he would have liked to ride his hobby into distant parts” suggesting that he felt trapped in his marriage. Around 1795 he met Eliza D’Orville who was to become his mistress and in 1798 he moved to Devon with Eliza. This caused scandal among his society friends, family and the army and he was court-martialled under the pretence of “actions prejudicial to junior officers”. Once in Devon he devoted himself to researching and publishing on a diverse range of animals, notably birds and molluscs. Eliza often beautifully illustrated his publications and it was through their son Henry D’Orville that a collection went to Exeter in 1874. Montagu’s most notable works are his Ornithological Dictionary of 1802 and his Testacea Britannica of 1803 & 1808. In 1815 Montagu stood on a rusty nail and developed tetanus from which he died on the 20th of June that year.

The majority of new taxa described by Montagu are to be found in Testacea Britannica (1803) and its Supplement (1808). Montagu also wrote some short papers in the Transactions of the Linnean Society and these also include descriptions of new species of mollusc (Montagu, 1804, 1808, 1813, 1816 read in 1811).

The Montagu Collection in London

The Montagu collection in the Natural History Museum, London is inextricably linked to William Elford Leach (1791-1836) and most of the information here has been extracted from Harrison and Smith (2008). Leach trained as a physician but had always been an enthusiastic naturalist and was introduced to Montagu by Charles Prideaux. Charles Prideaux (1782–1868) was a cousin of Leach and a conchologist, giving his name to molluscs such as Rhomboidella prideauxi (Leach, 1815) and crustaceans such as Pagurus prideauxi (Leach, 1815). Leach went on to be the zoologist at the British Museum forging an illustrious if stressful career from 1813–1822 (Harrison and Smith, 2008). Leach and Montagu went on collecting expeditions together and one can consider Montagu to be a major influence on Leach’s life. Consequently Leach was an enthusiastic promoter of the Montagu collection, which he pursued until its purchase by the Trustees of the British Museum. Montagu died in June 1815 and within a month Leach had begun to persuade the trustees to purchase the collection but a decision was not made until early in 1816. The sum of £1100 was agreed with Eliza D’Orville but she was not finally paid until 1819.

Reorganisation of the shell collection was started by Leach and Prideaux and some of this work was done as early as late 1816; but not in the museum but in Leach’s family home in Spitchwick, South Devon. The collection was in Montagu House (British Museum), London in 1817 but it was stored in the basement and was beginning to deteriorate. Montagu House is in no way connected to Col. Montagu, the two being entirely coincidental. The collection was still in the basement in November 1818 and Leach had not yet completed the re-arrangement. Leach’s prodigious output took its toll and in 1821 he suffered a mental breakdown that resulted in his resignation in 1822. Leach had embarked on his own treatise and produced a part draft manuscript in 1818 that was finally published by Gray in 1852 (Leach in Gray 1852). This may suggest that Leach never finished the rearrangement of the Montagu collection of shells and the majority of shells never left the basement of the museum. Whatever the actual events were, JG Jeffreys (1863) was prompted to write that “Nearly the whole of his priceless collection of British shells....has been lost to science...the few specimens that are still preserved were many years ago removed from their original tablets, no care having apparently been taken in the course of rearrangement to retain the names affixed by the donor to the types”. Consequently the collection that Leach extolled as being a complete representation of the British Mollusca is now reduced to 26 species.

What remains of this collection now exists in a variety of mounts and boxes. Few can be traced directly to the Montagu collection with only a few original labels recognised by JRLeB Tomlin (Fig. I1a, b). Two forms of early label are now to be found, those identified by Tomlin and a second with a distinctive Capital letter for the genus followed by a colon before the species name (Fig. I1c, d). The wooden blocks (Fig. I1e, f) are usually attributed to the remounting done by JE Gray and his wife ME Gray during the period 1840–1870. The writing on the front of these blocks is not that of Montagu and all data added either came from original labels (now lost) or have been taken from publications.

Figure I1. 

Labels and mounts associated with the Montagu collection in the Natural History Museum, London. a, b Original Montagu identification labels attached to bases of boxes. c, d Old labels associated with the Montagu collection of unknown provenance e, f Old mounting blocks associated with the curatorial work of JE Gray g Late 19th century mount on black paper in glass topped box.

Nowhere in Exeter or in London are examples of Montagu’s labels that append his name as the authority of the species name. We conclude that any label carrying a ‘Montagu’ or ‘Mont’ attribution has been added at a later date. Similarly the annotation ‘Mus. Montagu’ is a secondary attribution. The first attempt to identify the remnants of the Montagu collection seems to be the efforts of JRLeB Tomlin as noted by Dean (1936). The handwritten pencil annotations on the rear of the blocks are post 1870 but in an, as yet, unidentified hand. The mounting of very small specimens on black shiny thin paper (Fig. I1g) can, from the paper, be dated to the late 19th early 20th centuries and from some labels it can be seen that GW Chaster (1863–1910) examined and photographed at least one shell in 1896. George Chaster was a polymath naturalist, his interest in molluscs centred on the Pyramidellidae introducing genera such as Jordaniella, Cima and Spiralinella. The uncertainties in provenance are further exacerbated by the presence of shells that in no way conform to the original descriptions or figures and these are further evidence of the early disruption of this collection.

The Montagu Collection in Exeter

George Montagu’s collection was donated to the Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery (RAMM) in November 1874 by his natural son Henry D’Orville who lived in Exeter. The register entry reads: “20 Nov Collection of British Shells (about 1540 specimens) 8 specimens of tubes of Annelides belonging to the late Col. George Montagu. The late H. D’Orville Esq Alphington”. The collection was recorded by the museum’s first curator, naturalist, archaeologist and collector, William D’Urban (1836–1934) in the Mollusc Register (Fig. I2). Each lot of specimens was assigned a sequential four-digit number from Moll3639 to Moll4537 (Fig. I2a), against which D’Urban recorded the species, number of specimens and occasional details about how they were stored. Frequently two names appear against any one lot (Fig. I2b), the upper contemporary with 1874 and mostly following Jeffreys (1863-67); the lower in smaller writing is the name given by Montagu and may or may not be on a label with the specimens. These names often are indicative of potential type status.

Figure I2. 

Extracts from the original register of the Montagu collection in RAMM, Exeter. a numbering sequence starting at 3639 b double entries, the lower giving the original Montagu name. c beginning of the “box numbers” of material no longer present. d pencil annotation identifying actions of Rosemary Brind, 1979. e pencil tick marks indicating lot found in 1979. f “T” mark indicating type status as recognised by Brind (1979) g dual naming of lots contained in boxes but no longer present.

When donated the collection consisted of 895 lots but with little data other than the name and no indication of type status. Specimens from 676 of these lots remain, from which we have identified 84 lots containing potential types. D’Urban’s original numbering system is still in use today. However, in 1976 the curator at that time (Mr Kelvin Boot) began to re-accession the collection under the registration number 63/1976 but the process was abandoned. Cate (1979) is the only author to reference this system.

Many of the smaller shells in the collection were, and still are, glued to pieces of dark blue octagonal card (Fig. I3a, b). A printed label bearing the species name (Fig. I3b) is often attached to the front of the card. A manuscript label written in Montagu’s hand (Fig. I3a) may be found fixed to the back of the card and projecting to one side. In a few cases both are present. On a few occasions the blue card is attached to an urn-shaped wooden plinth (Fig. I3c). It is likely that it was Montagu who mounted them in this manner, as we have no indication that his son Henry had any interest in the shells, other than one assumes sentimental. Some large bivalves have the original identification labels adhered directly onto the shell (Fig. I3d) or have a registration numbered disc attached to them (Fig. I3e). In most cases the cards and typed labels still exist but the handwritten identifications survive less frequently. No locality information survives, so any collecting data has been inferred from the publications. It is not known how the cards were stored when the collection was first presented.

Once at RAMM the specimens and their cards, where present, were mounted on wooden boards covered with pale green paper (Fig. I3f), presumably for display. A few of these boards are still present but many of the specimens and cards have fragments of adhesive and green paper still attached to the reverse face.

At a later date, the curator, FR Rowley transferred the specimens to bespoke card trays (Fig. I3g), which we refer to here as “Rowley boxes”. Larger specimens were mounted in open trays on cotton wool, while smaller shells were placed inside glass-topped boxes. Each tray was given a typed label listing the current identification, presumed collection location, donor, registry numbers and ‘Montagu Collection’. Rowley describes his method at length in The Museums Journal in 1910.

Montagu’s collection is no longer on display and instead stored in a 20 drawer wooden cabinet where the majority of specimens are still arranged in Rowley’s boxes. Previously identified potential type material has been indicated using green adhesive stars or discs (Fig. I3g). Following this review the type lots will be re-housed in modern micro-storage.

RAMM’s mollusc register has been annotated over the years indicating the specimens found to be present in the collection. The most recent inventory was carried out by a previous curator (Rosemary Brind) and published in the Biology Curators Group Newsletter (Brind 1979). She annotated the original register (Fig. I2d) with pencil ticks if present (Fig. I2e) and ‘T’s to indicate type lots (Fig. I2f). She confirmed the presence of lots Moll3639-4314 (676 in total) but not Moll4315-4537 (222 lots). Interestingly, the register specifies that these lots were split between 13 boxes (Fig. I2c) numbered 1-3, 5-10, 12, 14, 16 and ‘long box’. The missing box numbers in this sequence do not appear to have been allocated to any other lots in the Mollusc Register and earlier Montagu lots have not been allocated a box number. Also unlike earlier Montagu lots, the register shows two columns of entries for each lot; on the left ‘Montagu’s names’ and on the right ‘Jeffreys’ names’ with a running specimen number for each lot starting at 1 for each box (Fig. I2g). Most entries have identifications in both columns, except for Moll4315-4337 and a few scattered examples where the Jeffreys’ name has been left blank and for Moll4355-4373 the Montagu name is missing. Both columns are in D’Urban’s hand. A thorough search for Moll4315-4537 in RAMM’s wider mollusc collection has been undertaken since Brind’s inventory but none have been located.

Figure I3. 

Labels and mounts associated with the Montagu collection in RAMM, Exeter. a Montagu hexagonal blue card with specimen and original hand written label b Montagu hexagonal blue card with specimens and original printed label c Montagu hexagonal blue card with specimen attached to a wooden urn-shaped plinth. d Original label attached to inside of shell e RAMM registration disc attached to shell f Early block with green paper cover with Montagu hexagonal card attached g. “Rowley box” mount with glass topped boxes containing Montagu hexagonal cards

The presence of ‘Jeffreys’ names’ in the Mollusc Register offers one possible explanation for the missing specimens. In 1879 Gwyn Jeffreys reports that D’Urban enabled him to examine the Montagu collection. Jeffreys’ paper is puzzling in that it mentions only a small part of the collection and some taxa that are not present in the Mollusc Register, but it does list specimens from the missing lots. For example, “Pecten laevis” can be traced in the register to Moll4385, “T.[urbo] cimex” to Moll4465 and “T. calathiscus?” to Moll4464. If we were to assume that Jeffreys borrowed this portion of the collection to re-identify might we assume that they were never returned? If they were retained by Jeffreys they are likely to be in his collection, which he sold to the Smithsonian Institution, Washington, USA. Investigation of the US National Natural History Museum’s online database has uncovered two lots in Jeffreys’ collection, which bear initial name combinations that would have been used by Montagu. It is possible that USNM 149118 “Pecten subauriculata” refers to the shells cited by Jeffreys in his 1879 paper but there are no shells bearing this name in the register. Numerous specimens in the Jeffreys collection carry additional names with old combinations that were not used by Jeffreys such as the rissoids referred to the genus Turbo. While they may indicate a link to Montagu this is not conclusive as it has not be possible to identify their provenance. All the old labels have been removed from the Jeffreys collection and therefore there is no proof that Montagu material was incorporated.

J. Davy Dean reported on the collection in 1936 but he does not mention the missing lots. He states that ‘the Montagu Cabinet at Exeter contains 220 species and varieties’ and lists 31 species by name, which are present in the collection and first described by Montagu. These lots were subsequently listed by Brind (1979).

Spurious species

One puzzling aspect of Testacea Britannica and the Supplement is the inclusion of exotic species that are not part of the British malacofauna. For use in nomenclature, these taxa are especially vexing as their provenance is so uncertain and the condition and number of shells is far from ideal. Montagu himself seems to be cautious about accepting some shells but was also keen not to offend those who sent them. In the preface of Testacea Britannica (1803 p. xi) he writes “Aware that some shells have been given as English which never originated there, we have been cautious of admitting anything but upon the best authority; and where we have expressed doubt, we beg it may not be considered an arrogance, or contempt for the opinion of others”. His wishing not to offend may have resulted in part from the exclusion from his family and friends following his scandal over living with Eliza. However, two of his new friends appeared to have an uncanny ability to discover new species and send them to Montagu.

The first is Capt. John Laskey a rather enigmatic character of who there are mixed opinions. For what we know of Laskey we are very grateful to Geoff Hancock (Hunterian Museum, Glasgow) and Fred Woodward (ex Kelvingrove Art Gallery and Museum, Glasgow) and here we only elucidate aspects that have bearing on the status of species described by Montagu.

John (sometimes as James) Laskey trained as a solicitor in Devon and had an early interest in both history and natural history as can be seen in various articles in the Gentleman’s Magazine through the 1790s. In 1798 he joins the North Devon Militia then in 1804 the Kirkcudbright and Wigtown Militia and moves to Scotland. His interest in conchology develops around this time and while in Scotland he joins the Wernerian Society in Edinburgh. While stationed at Port Seton just to the east of Edinburgh he makes extensive collections at various sites throughout the Firth of Forth and most particularly around Dunbar. In 1811 (read 1809) he published his “Account of North British Testacea” and notified his attention to leave a collection of his shells with the Wernerian Society. It is from these collections that Laskey sends many new species to Montagu that are published in the Supplement to Testacea Britannica in 1808.

In 1813 Laskey’s guide to the collections of the Hunterian Museum in Glasgow is published. He goes on to write on Napoleonic medals and the Elgin Marbles and these apparently laudable actions contrast with the views of some of his peers and by later conchologists.

In 1814 WE Leach, Keeper of Zoology in the British Museum, in a letter to Robert Jameson wrote (reproduced from Harrison and Smith 2008) ... “Capn Laskey might have been useful (as it would not have been in his power to steal (to which he is very prone)... Therefore his statement that he was to be under me; is false, and any use that he may have made of my name was without my permission and very like the conduct of a man like Capn Laskey who cannot be trusted”.

Footnotes in Jeffreys British Conchology also hint at Laskey’s unreliability.

• Jeffreys 1867, p. 377 states “P. accincta (Murex accinctus, Mont.), one of Laskey’s pseudo-discoveries, is West-Indian”

• Jeffreys 1867, p. 315 “Murex gyrinus of Montagu (not of Linné), a base coin from the Laskeyan mint, is exotic”

• Jeffreys 1863, p. 237 states, “Another species, the Venus orbiculata of Montagu, said to have been found by Laskey at Dunbar, is also spurious. It is the Lucina squamosa of Lamarck, and West Indian”.

Montagu described 15 new species from material donated by Laskey and many others are cited in the Supplement and in Laskey (1811); these were all considered spurious by Forbes and Hanley (1853), but did accept that they could have originated from dumped ships’ ballast. A closer examination of Laskey’s 1811 paper on North British Testacea reveals further inaccuracies. Laskey boasts that he has added “near 50 new species of Testacea to the North British fauna” but most of these have never been found on the east coast of Scotland or indeed in British waters. A typical example is his entry for Tellina striata, a Caribbean shell that he states he found at Dunbar but Montagu states it was found at Weymouth by Bryer. This would seem to be a clear example of Laskey attempting to boost his list for the 1811 paper.

One plausible source of exotic species would be ships ballast as proposed by Gray (1879) in a notice on Laskey. The number of new species added by and the inaccuracies in Laskey’s paper lead one to agree with Jeffreys that Laskey was, to say the least, being inventive. Laskey is perhaps trying to impress others and possibly ingratiate himself with the academic circles of the day.

By way of contradiction in Laskey’s annotated copy of his North British Testacea (held in the archives of the Mollusca Section of the NHMUK) we find him referring to some discoveries as being accidental and recognizing shells not to be of British origin. On p. 35 (Fig. I5) under Trochus cinereus of Donovan and Montagu, he states “This shell is from the Mediterranean, tho figured by Da Costa first and followed by Donovan and again cited by Montagu from their authority, it is decidedly not British”. If he was aware of the exotic nature of some shells why did he not acknowledge this for the many obvious spurious species that he passed to Montagu?

Laskey sold a collection of his own in 1808 but it contained very few shells. It appears that on his death in 1829 Laskey’s shells and books passed to a Dr. J. Brown. This gentleman’s collection was put up for sale in 1836 at which Edward Forbes purchased Laskey’s annotated copy of North British Testacea along with some shells that are now in the NHMUK London.

Laskey’s name also becomes linked with the Duchess of Portland collection, part of which Laskey had in his possession. This series of British land and freshwater shells he acquires as duplicates of lot 2487 and these he sends to Montagu in 1806 for his inclusion in the Supplement to Testacea Britannica (Montagu 1808). In an annotated copy of the Portland Catalogue (Lightfoot 1786b) (held in the National Museum of Wales) lot 2487 was bought by Cash in 1786 and consisted of a series of shells identified by Lightfoot. Lightfoot (1786a) published these in Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society and are therefore potentially type specimens. A letter, held in the archives of the Linnean Society, London, from Laskey to Montagu listing these and discussing other shells is illustrated here (Fig. I4).

Figure I4. 

Part of a letter from Laskey to Montagu listing the shells in Laskey’s possession from lot 2487 of the Duchess of Portland collection. By permission of the Linnean Society of London, Archive MS213.

The second collector associated with spurious species is Mr Bryer of Weymouth who Montagu acknowledges for access to his shell cabinet and donation of specimens. Six species described as new by Montagu are included, all collected from Weymouth and all now declared to be of West Indian origin. Mr Bryer is also credited for supplying shells to Pulteney (1799), some of which are also exotic. From the works of Maton and Racket (1807) and Montagu (1808) it appears that Mr Bryer died around 1806. On page 36 of the Supplement (1808) Montagu indicates that the Bryer cabinet was given to him by Mrs Bryer.

For the knowledge of this nondescript species we are indebted to Mrs Bryer, relict of our late valuable friend, who has so largely contributed towards the former part of this work. This lady has continued that liberality which so conspicuously marked the scientific researches of our much lamented friend, by presenting us with his cabinet, which consists of most species of shells belonging to the coast about Weymouth, amongst which we had the pleasure to observe this marked as indigenous

The only Bryer that we can link to Weymouth and dying between the publication of the Testacea Britannica in 1803 and the Supplement in 1808 is a surgeon, Stephen Perrot Bryer. His profession would fit well with his scientific interests but, if it is he, he died at the early age of 36 years. This Mr Bryer is mentioned in the account of the maritime disaster of the grounding and loss of six ships of a squadron bound for the West Indies under the leadership of Admiral Christian (Smith 1796, Boult 2003). These ships were lost in a single day in 1795 along the length of Chesil Beach. Mr Bryer is noted for his efforts in tending survivors. Given the extent of shipping linked to the West Indies at this time it is possible that Bryer found exotic shells in dumped ballast or ballast from wrecks.

Although Capt. Laskey was a prolific supplier of exotic shells he and Mr Bryer were not alone in accepting these as British. Da Costa (1788), Pulteney (1799), Montagu (1803, 1808), Donovan (1804) all include exotic shells in their works. The extent of lending and exchanging shells was prolific at this time so that the possibilities for error were great. Tobin (2014) notes that Pulteney exchanged shells with the Duchess of Portland and that she gave him exotic shells, some of which by error may have been reported as coming from Weymouth, a favoured collecting spot of the Duchess’s.

We will probably never discover the true source of these shells or the motivation behind their inclusion in the British fauna but the nomenclature based upon them is problematic. Using such poorly defined names to overturn accepted nomenclature is not recommended here especially as the type localities cannot be verified.

Figure I5. 

Extract from Laskey’s personally annotated copy of his North British Testacea. Held in the archives of the Mollusca Section of the NHMUK.

Montagu shells in other collections

It will be seen that neither RAMM nor the NHMUK collections individually or together entirely represent the totality of Montagu’s molluscan species. Montagu was given access to or was donated specimens from a number of collectors who also held collections. Without type material in London or Exeter these collections could hold material suitable for designation as lectotype or neotype. Conversely, the Montagu collection has been used as source of neotypes for species described by associates of Montagu or whose descriptions he followed. Below is a list of possible collections and their locations if known, but unfortunately most have been lost.

Overbeck’s Museum & Garden

It had been rumoured that Overbecks, a National Trust property in Salcombe, Devon, also has shells from Montagu’s collection. However, there is no evidence to suggest Montagu had any connection to the shells in their possession (pers. comm. Emma Gatehouse, Senior Visitor Experience Officer 24/10/2016).

Birmingham City Museum

In 1962 Mr Fred Woodward purchased the shell collection of the Athenaeum Museum in Barnstaple, North Devon for the Birmingham City Museum. In a letter to R. Cleevely he states that it included the cabinet of a Miss Hill, dating from around 1800, in which were shells from Montagu and Turton (R. Cleevely and F. Woodward pers. comm.). A typescript of the contents (courtesy of F. Woodward) confirms that Miss Hill was in Torquay in 1812 and at some time collected snails from Col. Montagu’s pond at Knowle House. At the time of writing this collection could not be recognised in Birmingham City Museum.

Smithsonian (Jeffreys collection)

While we have surmised that Jeffreys may have acquired part of the Montagu collection left to RAMM there is no evidence of this from the Smithsonian catalogue.

Laskey and Wernerian Society Collections

The Wernerian Society collections were most likely incorporated into Edinburgh University and subsequently into the National Museums Scotland, but there are no specimens that can be identified as such. The only Laskey shells to be identified are in the Natural History Museum, London.

Boys & Walker

William Boys (naturalist) and George Walker (illustrator) collaborated on the production of the description of microscopic shells collected in the region around Sandwich in Kent (Walker 1784). Montagu makes frequent reference to this work and to shells acquired from Boys. The names in Boys and Walker are not binomial so not available but the descriptions were adopted by Montagu and any existing collection would be particularly useful in resolving the actual identity of these minute shells. We have been unable to locate any relevant collection.

John Adams of Pembroke

John Adams of Pembroke (1769-1798) wrote a number of papers in the late 18th century describing small molluscs from Wales (Adams 1797a, b, 1800a, b). Montagu refers to these and Adams’ names frequently have priority over those of Montagu. The fate of Adams’ collection is not known and in lieu of this neotypes have been selected from the Montagu collection (see under Turbo interstinctus in catalogue).

John Adams belonged to a landed family living at Holyland, Pembroke. He graduated from Christ’s College Cambridge with a BA in 1791. He was admitted to the Linnean Society in 1795 and read his first paper that year. His fellowship was recommended by William Curtis, James Sowerby and Thomas Marsham. Adams tragically drowned while collecting on the coast of south Wales. It should be noted that the type localities of Adams are all in Wales. Reference to “The Wash” does not refer to the location in the east of England but to a small rocky inlet on the south coast of Pembrokeshire not far from Adams’ home. A biography of John Adams by Graham Oliver is in preparation.

Catalogue

The listings below include entries for all known molluscan taxa introduced by George Montagu in his publications of 1803, 1804, 1808, 1813, 1816.

Line 1 gives the original name as given by Montagu.

Line 2 gives the current name and superfamily and family placement. The synonymy of marine taxa follows WoRMS and the non-marine fauna follows Fauna Europaea (Bank and Ramos 2013). Where names could not be found in these lists the source of any synonymy is given.

Line 3 gives the full original reference

Line 4 gives the recorded localities as given by Montagu, therefore type localities. None of the original labels indicate the locality; all are subsequently inferred from literature.

Following this gives the data on available specimens, any confirmed designations and our suggested type status.

Wherever possible we have tried to give accurate determinations to the type material but we are not expert across the range of taxa included here. Anyone wishing to make lectotype selections is strongly advised to research the original descriptions, figures and specimens and not to rely unquestioning on this catalogue. The primary aim here is to make the collection available to research and is not definitive.

accinctus Murex Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 1)

Kurtziella accinctus (Montagu, 1808) [Conoidea, Mangeliidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p.114 not figured.

“Firth of Forth” (from Laskey); Erroneous is Caribbean.

NHMUK 20001350, Syntypes, 2 sh.

The two shells in the NHMUK are given the provenance of “Mus. Laskey” and not “Mus. Montagu” indicating that they are not part of the Montagu collection. Montagu (1808) states “In the cabinet of Mr. Laskey” which could imply that Montagu did not possess a specimen. The species was figured by Laskey (1811, pl. 8, fig.14) and by Brown (1827, pl.48, figs 14, 15). Forbes and Hanley (1853, p. 491–2) describe this species and note that it is West Indian. Jeffreys (1867, p. 377) states, “P. accincta (Murex accinctus, Mont.), one of Laskey’s pseudo-discoveries, is West-Indian”.

The species is mentioned again by Tomlin (1934, p. 39) who states that “Montagu’s Murex accinctus, of which the monotype is still in the British Museum”. This seems at odds with the presence of two syntypes but the associated label in Tomlin’s handwriting states, “Cotypes” (Fig. 1.3), so perhaps there is a simple error here. Given that the origin of the Laskey shells is thought to be spurious it is a strange coincidence that Reeve (1845) describes a similar if not identical species Pleurotoma forthiensis from the same locality as M. accinctus, Firth of Forth. In this case the shells were given to Reeve by JE Gray and the types of these are present as NHMUK 1874.10.31.2. (Fig. 2). How Gray came to possess these shells is not clear but we surmise that they all originate from a single source. Given the uncertain provenance of the shells cited here extreme caution should be taken when making nomenclatural decisions based upon them.

Figures 1–4. 

1. Murex accinctus Montagu, 1808 [Kurtziella dorvilliae (Reeve, 1845)] 1.1 Syntype 1, NHMUK 20001350/1. 1.2 Syntype 2, NHMUK 20001350/2. 1.3 Label in Tomlin’s hand noting type status. 1.4 Old labels, one for {Mus. Montagu} and one for {Mus. Laskey}, latter also indicating West Indian provenance. 2. Pleurotoma forthiensis Reeve, 1845 [Kurtziella dorvilliae (Reeve, 1845)] 2.1 Syntype 1, NHMUK 1874.10.31.2/1. 2.2 Syntype 2, NHMUK 1874.10.31.2/2. 2.3 Syntype 3, NHMUK 1874.10.31.2/3. 2.4 Old labels indicating the association with accincta and dorvilliae. 3. Murex adversus Montagu, 1803 [Marshallora adversa (Montagu, 1803)] 3.1 Three syntypes on blue card, EXEMS Moll4231. 3.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4231/a. 4. Patella apertura Montagu, 1803 [Diodora graeca (Linnaeus, 1758)] 4.1 Largest syntype, apical and apertural views, EXEMS Moll4169/a. 4.2 Syntype, lateral view, EXEMS Moll4169/b. 4.3 Group of four syntypes EXEMS Moll4169.

adversus Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 3)

Marshallora adversa (Montagu, 1803) [Triphoroidea, Triphoridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 271, not figured.

From Boys (therefore Kent); Cornwall; Devon.

EXEMS Moll4231, Syntypes, 2sh. on blue card; 1sh. loose; 1 empty scar on card.

apertura Patella Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 4)

Diodora graeca (Linnaeus, 1758) [Patelloidea, Patellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 491–492, Tab.13 fig. 10.

Falmouth; Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4169, Syntypes, 4sh.

arctica Trivia Pulteney, 1799. (Fig. 29.3)

Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799) [Velutinoidea, Triviidae].

EXEMS Moll4248/2, hypotype selected by Cate, 1979 but cited as RAMM 63/1976 (b).

See under europaea for discussion.

arcuatum Cardium Montagu, 1803.

Lucinella divaricata (Linnaeus, 1758) [Lucinoidea, Lucinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 85, Tab. 3 fig. 2.

Dredged in Falmouth Harbour, Cornwall.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK, but seen in RAMM by Jeffreys (1879: p.3) {“C(ardium) arcuatumLoripes divaricatus L.}

attenuatus Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 5)

Mangelia attentuata (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Mangeliidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 266–267, Tab. 9 fig. 6.

Falmouth Harbour; Biddeford Bay.

EXEMS Moll4255, Syntypes, 2 sh. loose with blue card.

Examined by G. Spada, lectotype (EXEMS Moll4255a) selected but not published; also states that only one specimen is M. attenuatus (G. Spada pers. comm).

NHMUK 1998074, Syntypes, 5sh.

auricularis Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Lacuna parva (da Costa, 1778) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 308, not figured.

Southampton.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Not in WoRMS, Jeffreys 1865, p. 349 gives it as a var. 2 of Lacuna puteolus Turton (= parva da Costa)

avonensis Mytilus Montagu, 1803.

Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus, 1758) [Unionoidea, Unionidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 172–173, not figured.

River Avon, Wiltshire, England.

EXEMS Moll4038, not found. Not in NHMUK.

bidentata Mya Montagu, 1803.

Kurtiella bidentata (Montagu, 1803) [Galeommatoidea, Montacutidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 44–45, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4390, not found. Not in NHMUK.

bidentata Voluta Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 6)

Auriculinella bidentata (Montagu, 1808) [Ellobioidea, Ellobiidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 100–101, Tab. 30 fig. 2. not Tab. 29 fig. 3 as given on p. 100.

Figures 5–8. 

5. Murex attenuatus Montagu, 1803 [Mangelia attentuata (Montagu, 1803)] 5.1 “Rowley box” containing lot EXEM Moll4255. 5.2 Two potential type specimens attached to Montagu blue card. 5.3 Apertural and abapertural views of the syntype in RAMM Exeter, EXEMS Moll4255a. 5.4 Syntype in NHMUK, NHMUK 1998074. 5.5 Second potential type specimen in RAMM Exeter is NOT M. attenuatus and not a British species. 6. Voluta bidentata Montagu, 1808 [Auriculinella bidentata (Montagu, 1808)] 6.1 Green paper covered block with Montagu hexagonal blue card attached. 6.2 Apertural and abapertural views of the entire syntype EXEMS Moll4101a. 7. Turbo biplicatus Montagu, 1803 [Alinda biplicata (Montagu, 1803)] 7.1 Two syntypes on Montagu hexagonal blue card, EXEMS Moll4124. 7.2 Apertural view of larger syntype, EXEMS Moll4124a. 7.3 Abapertural view of smaller syntype, EXEMS Moll4124b. 8. Turbo bryereus Montagu 1803 [Schwartziella bryerea (Montagu, 1803)] 8.1 Montagu blue card with 2 shells, EXEMS Moll4223. 8.2 Apertural and abapertural views of lectotype. EXEMS Moll4223/1. 8.3 SEM micrograph of apertural view of lectotype. EXEMS Moll4223/1. 8.4 Old NHMUK label indicating shells from the Laskey Collection. 8.5 Old NHMUK label {Turbo bryereus Monts. Mus Mont. Sent by Laskey who says he found them in Scotland}. 8.6 Apertural view of 1 of 6 shells from the Laskey Coll., NHMUK 20170130/1.

EXEMS Moll4101, Syntypes, 2 sh., 1 with broken aperture with octagonal blue card.

bifida Doris Montagu, 1816.

Hermaea bifida (Montagu, 1816) [Doridoidea; Dorididae].

Montagu, 1816. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 11(2). p. 198–199, Tab. 14 fig. 2.

No record of any non-shelled specimens being deposited.

bimaculata Patella Montagu, 1803.

Patella pellucida Linnaeus, 1758 [Patelloidea, Patellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 482, Tab. 13 fig. 8.

Falmouth; Milton Sands, Devon.

EXEMS Moll4307, seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.3), {“Patella bimaculataHelcion pellucidum, L., young}, not found. Not in NHMUK.

biplicatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 7)

Alinda biplicata (Montagu, 1803) [Clausilioidea, Clausilidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 361–362, Tab. 11 fig. 5.

Easton Grey in Wiltshre.

EXEMS Moll4124, Syntypes, 2sh. on octagonal blue card.

boisyi Mactra Montagu, 1803.

Abra alba (Wood, 1802) [Tellinoidea, Semelidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 98–99, Tab. 3 fig. 7.

Sandwich in Kent (from Boys), Salcombe; Biddeford; Studland.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

bryereus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 8)

Schwartziella bryerea (Montagu, 1803) [Rissoidae, Zebinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 313–314, Tab. 15 fig. 8.

Weymouth (from Bryer); Erroneus is Caribbean.

EXEMS Moll4223, 1 sh. on card, 1 in capsule.

Lectotype (EXEMS Moll4223/1) selected by Faber 1990.

Six shells (NHMUK 20170130) in NHMUK (Fig. 8.6), ex Laskey Coll. were reputedly collected from Belton Sands, Firth of Forth, Scotland (Laskey 1811, p. 404). These shells are conspecific with the lectotype in RAMM but their provenance is doubly questionable. Not only is the species Caribbean but the likelihood of an exotic species, presumably coming from ballast, being found at such widely disparate localities seems suspicious. These shells cannot be considered part of the type series.

bullaoides Voluta Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 9)

Melampus bullaoides (Montagu, 1808) [Ellobioidea, Ellobiidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 102–104, Tab. 30 fig. 4. not Tab. 23 fig. 6.

Lincoln (England) but is West Atlantic (Frias Martins, 1996)

In a letter to Montagu, dated 19th January 1806, Laskey lists shells that he acquired from the Portland sale via a gentleman who purchased lot 2487 in 1786. These shells were sent to Montagu for inclusion in his 1808 Supplement and among them is mentioned “Helix bullaoides (Lincoln)”. This corresponds with the entry in Montagu 1808 (p. 103–104) and these shells can be considered as syntypes.

NHMUK 20170129, Syntypes, 2sh., ex Laskey Coll. For a discussion of this species see Frias Martins (1996).

bullata Cypraea Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 29.4)

Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799) [Velutinoidea, Triviidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 202–203, Tab. 6 fig. 1.

Salcombe; Falmouth.

EXEMS Moll4248/12, Syntype, 1sh. seen by Brind (1979) but grouped with Cypraea europea as one of twelve shells.

caerulea Doris Montagu, 1804.

Cuthona caerula (Montagu, 1804). [Fionoidea, Fionidae].

Montagu, 1804. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7. p. 78, Tab. 7 figs 4–5.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited.

calathiscus Turbo Montagu, 1808.

Alvania cimex (Linnaeus, 1758) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 132–133, Tab. 30 fig. 5.

Jura (from Laskey) and in a “parcel of sand from Dunbar”.

EXEMS Moll4464, seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.3), {“T. calathiscus?” First two specimens are Rissoa reticulata Montagu, last four R. calathus F. & H.}, not found. Not in NHMUK.

canalis Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 10)

Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 309, Tab 12. fig 11.

Southampton.

EXEMS Moll4191, Syntypes, 2sh. on blue card with 2 empty scars.

cantiana Helix Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 11)

Monacha cantiana (Montagu, 1803) [Helicoidea, Hygromiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p 422, not figured.

Sandwich (from Boys).

EXEMS Moll4140, Syntypes, 3sh.

caperata Helix Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 12)

Candidula intersecta (Poiret, 1801) [Helicoidea, Hygromiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 430–432, Tab. 11 fig. 11.

Wiltshire; Stanborough; Woolcomb; Plymouth Dock; Kent (from Boys).

EXEMS Moll4145, Syntypes, 9 sh.

castaneus Donax Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 13)

Ervilia castanea (Montagu, 1803) [Tellinoidea, Semelidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 573–574, not figured.

Falmouth; St Austell.

EXEMS Moll3729, 2v from different specimens attached to an octagonal blue card.

Figures 9–13. 

9. Voluta bullaoides Montagu, 1808 [Melampus bullaoides (Montagu, 1808)] 9.1 Apertural view of specimen 1, NHMUK 20170129/1. 9.2 Abapertural view of specimen 2, NHMUK 20170129/2. 9.3 Old NHMUK label indicating provenance from the Laskey Coll. and by inference leg. Portland Coll., sale lot 2487. 10. Turbo canalis Montagu, 1803 [Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803)] 10.1 Montagu blue hexagonal card with 2sh. and 2 empty scars, EXEMS Moll4191. 10.2 Apertural and abapertural views of the larger syntype, EXEMS Moll4191a. 10.3 Apertural and abapertural views of the smaller syntype, EXEMS Moll4191b. 11. Helix cantiana Montagu, 1803 [Monacha cantiana (Montagu, 1803)] 11.1 Apical, lateral and basal views of syntype EXEMS Moll4140b. 11.2 Lateral view of syntype EXEMS Moll4140a. 11.3 Lateral view of syntype EXEMS Moll4140c. 12. Helix caperata Montagu, 1803 [Candidula intersecta (Poiret, 1801)] 12.1 Rowley box with 9 sh. all syntypes, EXEMS Moll4145. 12.1 Basal view of banded shell, syntype, EXEMS Moll4145b. 12.3 Lateral, apical and basal views of syntype, EXEMS Moll4145a. 12.4 Lateral views of syntype EXEMS Moll4145c. 13. Donax castaneus Montagu, 1803 [Ervilia castanea (Montagu, 1803)] 13.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 2 valves. EXEMS Moll3279. 13.2 Exterior and interior of right valve, Lectotype, EXEMS Moll3729/1. 13.3 Exterior and interior of left valve, Paralectotype, EXEMS Moll3729/2.

EXEMS Moll3729/1 lectotype and EXEMS Moll3792/2 paralectotype; selected by Morton and Scott (1990).

catena Bulla Montagu, 1803.

Philine catena (Montagu, 1803) [Philinoidea, Philinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 215–216, Tab. 7 fig. 7.

Bigberry Bay, Devon.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

catenata Voluta Montagu, 1803.

Gibberula catenata (Montagu, 1803) [Muricoidea, Cystiscidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 236, Tab. 6 fig. 2.

St Austell; Fowey; the Lizard; Penzance; (from Swainson and also in his cabinet); Erroneus is Caribbean.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

cinctum Buccinum Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 14)

Uncertain [Buccinoidea, Columbellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 246–247, Tab. 15 fig. 1.

Weymouth (from Bryer); Erroneus is not British.

The four shells in the NHMUK (NHMUK 20170128) are ex Laskey Coll and this species is cited by him in his personalised copy of his 1811 paper. This is another example of an exotic shell described from Weymouth by Montagu that Laskey also reports from Scotland. Jeffreys (1867) placed B. cinctum in the genus Columbella and this fits well with the specimens in the Laskey collection. These specimens have no current type status although given the connection between Montagu and Laskey these shells may represent the species described by Montagu.

These shells have been identified as a species of Parvanachis by Kevin Monsecour (pers. comm).

cinerea Mactra Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 15)

Mactra stultorum (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mactroidea, Mactridae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p 35, not figured.

Weymouth (from Mrs Bryer).

EXEMS Moll3780–82, Syntypes, 3sh.

EXEMS Moll3778–79 with above as M. stultorum in register.

cingenda Helix Montagu, 1803.

Theba pisana (Muller, 1774) [Helicoidea, Helicidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 418–420, not figured.

Tenby.

EXEMS Moll4143, not found. Not in NHMUK.

cingillus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 16)

Cingula trifasciata (J. Adams, 1800) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 328, Tab. 12 fig. 7.

Plymouth; Salcombe.

EXEMS Moll4213, Syntypes, 4sh. on blue card, +1 empty scar.

complanatus Donax Montagu, 1803.

Donax variegatus (Gmelin, 1791) [Tellinoidea, Donacidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 106–107, Tab. 5 fig. 4.

Milton Sands, Falmouth.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

compressa Venus Montagu 1808. (Fig. 17)

Astarte montagui (Dillwyn, 1817) [Crassatelloidea, Astartidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 43–44, Tab. 26 fig. 1. in part.

EXEMS Moll3849–3851, 3sh.

In WoRMS V. compressa of Montagu is listed as a synonym of Astarte montagui and this would fit best with the description and the figure. The shells in RAMM are clearly labelled V. compressa but are Astarte sulcata. We do not consider these shells to have any type status. Associated with this lot is a single valve (EXEMS Moll3852) and label for V. scotica, also a synonym of A. sulcata but originally introduced by Maton and Racket 1807.

coniferus Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Rissoina conifera (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Rissoinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 314, Tab. 15 fig. 2.

Weymouth (from Bryer); Erroneus is Caribbean.

EXEMS Moll4443 “wanting” in register. Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Jeffreys (1867, p. 51) “Rissoina conifera (Turbo coniferus, Mont.), is West-Indian.”

crassior Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 18)

Lacuna crassior (Montagu, 1803) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 309–310, not figured.

Sandwich (from Boys); Bideford Bay.

Figures 14–18. 

14. Buccinum cinctum Montagu, 1803 [Parvanachis sp.] 14.1 Old NHMUK labels identifying these shells as Columbella cincta and ex Laskey Coll. 14.2 Apertural and abapertural views of shell NHMUK 20170128/1. 14.3 Three shells NHMUK 20170128/2/3/4. 15. Mactra cinerea Montagu, 1808 [Mactra stultorum Linnaeus, 1758] 15.1 Three syntypes EXEMS Moll3780-82. 15.2 Internal and external views of right and left valves of syntype EXEMS Moll3780. 16. Turbo cingillus Montagu, 1803 [Cingula trifasciata J. Adams, 1800] 16.1 Montagu blue hexagonal card with 4 syntypes EXEMS Moll4213a-d. 16.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4213a. 16.3 SEM of apertural view of syntype EXEMS Moll4213a. 17. Venus compressa Montagu, 1808 [Astarte montagui, Dillwyn, 1817] 17.1 Astarte sulcata EXEMS Moll3849 label for V. compressa attached to inside of right valve. 17.2 Astarte sulcata EXEMS Moll3851, inner margin smooth. 17.3 Astarte sulcata EXEMS Moll3850. 17.4 Old label for V. (Venus) scotica. 17.5 Single right valve of Astarte sulcata EXEMS Moll3852 identified as V. scotica in register. 18. Turbo crassior Montagu, 1803 [Lacuna crassior (Montagu, 1803)] 18.1 “Rowley” box containing 3 syntypes EXEMS Moll4186. 18.2 Montagu blue hexagonal card with 3 syntypes EXEMS Moll4186. 18.3 Apertural and abapertural views of largest syntype EXEMS Moll4186a.

EXEMS Moll4186, Syntypes, 3sh. on blue card with one empty scar.

crenella Helix Montagu, 1803.

Vallonia costata (Muller, 1774) [Pupilloidea, Vallonidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 441–443, Tab. 13 fig. 3.

From Boys said to be found at Bullstrode (Lightfoot).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

danmonia Venus Montagu, 1808.

Astarte sulcata (da Costa, 1778) [Crassatelloidea, Astartidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 45–46, Tab. 29 fig. 4.

No localities given.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

dealbata Mactra Pulteney sensu Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 19)

Standella pellucida (Gmelin, 1791) [Mactroidea, Mactridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 95–96, Tab. 5 fig. 1.

Weymouth (from Bryer); Erroneus is Indo-Pacific.

NHMUK 20170127, Potential type material. 2v. Ex Laskey Coll. Firth of Forth, cited in Laskey ms of his 1811 paper.

We know that Laskey was in correspondence with Montagu and although the collection locality does not match that given by Montagu it is quite likely that these shells correspond to those described by Montagu. They closely match figure Tab. 5, fig. 1 in Testacea Britannica and also, but less so, Tab. 1, fig.10 in Maton and Racket 1807. In WoRMS M. dealbata is assigned to the genus Macrotoma but from the figure in Montagu 1803 and from the present shells this placement is not supported.

The identification of these shells was confirmed by Javier Signorelli (pers. comm).

decussata Helix Montagu 1803. (Fig. 20)

Zebinella decussata (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 399, Tab. 15 fig. 7.

Between Weymouth and Portland (from Bryer); Erroneus is Caribbean.

EXEMS Moll4239, Syntypes, 1sh. on card, 1sh. in capsule. Shell in capsule labeled as “lectotype AA Luque 29/7/1986” but never published.

Uncredited figure of the syntypes is present on the Zebinella decussata page of Wikipedia. Rolan and Luque (2000) note their observation of the two syntypes but incorrectly attribute them the BMNH London rather than to RAMM.

Jeffreys (1867, p. 51) notes this to be a West Indian shell.

decussata Mya Montagu, 1808.

Petricola lithophaga (Retzius, 1788) [Veneroidea; Petricolidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 20 Tab. 28 fig.1.

Frith (Firth) of Forth (from Laskey); Erroneus Lusitanian and Mediterranean.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Jeffreys (1863, p. 348 states) {V. subromboidea of Montagu is apparently the adult of Petricola lithophaga, Retz,- his Mya decussata (P. ruperella, Lamarck) being certainly the younger state of that shell: this species has not been authenticated as British, although it is rather common in the Mediterranean and the west of France}.

decussatus Mytilus Montagu, 1808.

Crenella decussata (Montagu, 1808) [Mytiloidea, Mytlidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 69–70, not figured.

Scottish coasts (from Laskey).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

decussatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 21)

Parthenina decussata (Montagu, 1803) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 322, Tab. 12 fig. 4.

Salcombe.

EXEMS Moll4243, Syntype, 1 sh. on blue card on plinth, other vague scars.

NHMUK 1998072, Syntype, 1sh.

denticulata Voluta Montagu 1803. (Fig. 22)

Myosotella denticulata (Montagu, 1803) [Ellobioidea, Ellobiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 234–235, not figured.

Faversham (from Boys); Plymouth; Barnstaple; Ilfracombe; Aberavon; Southapmton.

EXEMS Moll4100, 2sh + blue card with 6 scars. Lectotype EXEMS Moll4100a and paralectotype EXEMS Moll4100b designated by Frias Martins (1996).

denticulatus Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Rissoina denticulata (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 315, not figured.

Weymouth (from Bryer); erroneous is Caribbean.

EXEMS Moll4444 (3sh. listed), not found. Not in NHMUK.

Jeffreys (1867, p. 51) notes this to be West Indian.

depressa Helix Montagu, 1803.

Skeneopsis planorbis (Fabricius, 1780) [Littorinoidea, Skeneopsidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 439–440, Tab. 13 fig. 5.

Whitsand Bay and Falmouth in Cornwall, Burrow in Devonshire.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

detrita Helix Montagu, 1803 non Muller, 1774. (Fig. 23)

Drymaeus elongatus (Röding, 1798) [Orthalicoidea, Bulimulidae]

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 384–386, Tab. 11 fig. 1.

Weymouth and Dorchester (from Bryer), Erroneus is Caribbean.

EXEMS Moll4299, 1sh.

Jeffreys (1862, p. 239) states {The Helix detrita of Montagu (judging from a specimen received from him by Mr Dillwyn and now in my collection) is exotic, and apparently a variety of Bulimus Guadaloupensis of Bruguiere}. The shell in RAMM is not this species but has been identified as Drymaeus elongatus (Röding, 1798) by Bram Breure (pers. comm.); the reticulate protoconch (Fig. 23.3) confirming the family placement. The type specimens were said to be collected from freshwater pools and streams but Drymaeus is a genus of tropical land snails. Whether more than one taxon is involved can no longer be clarified nor can the identity of the shell seen by Jeffreys be substantiated. The only records of B. guadalupensis in the Jeffreys collections refer to 2 specimens from “New Sth. Wales” (USNM 67239). If the locality does refer to New South Wales in Australia then this record is also erroneous as that species is also West Indian and only recently found as an introduction (Breure 1974). Given that the labels in the Jeffreys collection in the USNM have been transposed from the original then the locality may be a corruption and indeed refer to Wales in the British Isles.

Figures 19–23. 

19. Mactra dealbata Pulteney sensu Montagu, 1803 [Standella pellucida (Gmelin, 1791)] 19.1 Old NHMUK labels indicating provenance of Laskey Coll. The larger label reads {Purchd of Capt. Laskey who called it the Mactra dealbata of Montagu, asserted that he found it in the Firth of Forth near the mouth}. 19.2 Interior and exterior of entire right valve, NHMUK 20170127. 19.3 Interior of damaged left valve. 20. Helix decussata Montagu, 1803 [Zebinella decussata (Montagu, 1803)] 20.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 2 syntypes, EXEMS Moll4239a-b. 20.2 Apertural and abapertural view of larger syntype, EXEMS Moll4239a. 21. Turbo decussatus Montagu, 1803 [Parthenina decussata (Montagu, 1803)] 21.1 Montagu wooden plinth with blue card attached, 1 shell remaining, empty scars present. EXEMS Moll4273. 21.2 Base of box with original Montagu label attached and identified as such by J.R. le B. Tomlin. NHMUK 1998072. 21.3 Abapertural and apertural (SEM) views of syntype EXEMS Moll4273. 21.4 Apertural view of syntype NHMUK 1998072. 22. Voluta denticulata Montagu, 1803 [Myosotella denticulata (Montagu, 1803)] 22.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 2 sh. and empty scars. 22.2 Abapertural and apertural views of Lectotype EXEMS Moll4100a. 22.3 Abapertural and apertural views of Paralectotype EXEMS Moll4100b. 23. Helix detrita Montagu, 1803 non Müller, 1774 [Drymaeus elongatus (Röding, 1798)] 23.1 Old label for lot 4299. 23.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4299. 23.3 SEM of protoconch.

diaphana Bulla Montagu, 1803.

Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799) [Velutinoidea, Triviidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 225–226, Tab. 7 fig. 8.

Salcombe Bay; Falmouth.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

discors Cardium Montagu, 1803.

Strigilla pisiformis (Linnaeus, 1758) [Tellinoidea, Tellinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 84, not figured.

Falmouth (doubtfully English); is Caribbean.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Jeffreys (1863, p. 236–7) under Lucinella divaricata states {This is the Cardium discors of Montagu} but then goes on to suggest that there was confusion about what Montagu intended by his Cardium discors. In the original description Montagu refers to Strigilla (as Tellina) pisiformis.

discrepans Mytilus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 24)

Musculus discors (Linnaeus, 1767) (Mytiloidea, Mytilidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 169–170, not figured.

Southampton at mouth of Itchin; Ilfracombe and south coast of Wales.

EXEMS Moll3939–3946, Syntypes, 8sh., 4 disarticulated.

disjunctus Turbo Montagu, 1808.

Rissoa disjuncta (Montagu, 1808) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 128, not figured.

Scottish coast (in Laskey cabinet).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Not in WoRMS. Jeffreys (1867, p. 50) notes it to be West Indian.

dispar Turbo Montagu, 1816. (Fig. 25)

Littorina dispar (Montagu, 1816) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1816 Trans Linn Soc. Lond. 11, p. 195, Tab. 13 fig. 4.

Poole (from Bingley); Erroneus, ?subtropical/tropical

EXEMS Moll4202, Syntype 1sh. on blue card, 1 empty scar.

Forbes and Hanley (1853) and Jeffreys (1865, p. 376) state {The following two species of Littorina have been erroneously introduced into the list of British mollusca; both are West-Indian}.

Bequaert (1943, p. 15) and (Abbot 1964, p. 66) suggest that it is the Caribbean Nodilittorina ziczac (Gmelin 1791).

Bandel and Kadolsky (1982, p. 38) suggest that it is the South African species Nodilittorina knysnaensis (Philippi 1847) and that type was not available.

Reid and Williams (2004 p. 108) identify it as Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758) and quote RAMM 4202 = EXEMS Moll4202.

distorta Mya Montagu, 1803.

Thracia distorta (Montagu, 1803) [Thracioidea, Thraciidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 42–44, Tab.1 fig. 1.

As Ligula distorta in register, see below.

distorta Ligula Montagu 1808. (Fig. 26)

Thracia distorta (Montagu, 1803) [Thracioidea, Thraciidae].

Montagu G 1808 Suppl. Test. Brit. p 166–167, not figured.

Falmouth; Plymouth.

EXEMS Moll3693–3694, Syntypes, 1sh. + 1v.

distorta Patella Montagu, 1816.

Novocrania anomala (Müller, 1776) [Brachiopoda, Craniidae].

Montagu G 1816 Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 11, p. 195–196, Tab. 13 fig. 5.

Shetland.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

edentula Cardium Montagu, 1808.

Serripes groenlandicus (Mohr, 1786) [Cardioidea, Cardiidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 29–30, not figured.

Portsmouth (from Laskey); Erroneus is Arctic.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

elegantissimus Turbo, Montagu 1803. (Fig. 27)

Turbonilla lactea (Linnaeus, 1758) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 298–299, Tab. 10 fig. 2.

Sanfwich (from Boys); Falmouth; Salcombe; Ilfracombe.

EXEMS Moll4236, Syntypes, 5sh.+1 broken+1 fragment on blue card + 2 empty scars.

elongatum Cardium Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 28)

Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus, 1758) [Cardioidea, Cardiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 82, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll3881, Syntype of C. elongatum,1sh. on blue card.

Although recognised as a junior synonym of Parvicardium pinnulatum (Conrad, 1831) in WoRMS it is our opinion that lot 3881 is a juvenile Cerastoderma edule (confirmed by Jan-Johan ter Poorten, pers comm). Lot 3881 and 3882–4 are entered in the RAMM register under C. fasciatum but the latter are Parvicardium exiguum (Fig. 28.5).

Figures 24–28. 

24. Mytilus discrepans Montagu, 1803 [Musculus discors Linnaeus, 1767)] 24.1 “Rowley” box containing 8 sh. EXEMS Moll3939-46. 24.2 Montagu label. 24.3 Exterior of right and left valves of syntype EXEMS Moll3939. 25. Turbo dispar Montagu, 1816 [Littorina sp?] 25.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with original label for lot 4202. 25.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4202. 26. Mya distorta Montagu, 1803 [Thracia distorta (Montagu, 1803)] 26.1 “Rowley” box containing 1sh. +1v. 26.2 External views of right and left valves of syntype EXEMS Moll3693. 26.3 External and internal views of the left valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3694. 27. Turbo elegantissimus Montagu, 1803 [Turbonilla lactea (Linnaeus, 1758)] 27.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 6 sh. + 1 frag. EXEMS Moll4263a-f. 27.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4263a. 27.3 SEM Apertural view of syntype EXEMS Moll4263a. 28. Cardium elongatum Montagu, 1803 [Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus, 1758)] 28.1 Register entry under Cardium fasciatum with C. elongatum for lot 3881. 28.2 “Rowley” box containing 1 shell on blue card and 3 loose shells. 28.3 Montagu hexagonal blue card with number 3881 on reverse and label for C. elongatum. 28.4 Internal of left valve, external of right valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3881. 28.5 Parvicardium exiguum, 1 of 3 shells EXEMS Moll3882-4.

europaea , Cypraea Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 29.1–2)

Trivia monacha (da Costa, 1778) [Velutinoidea, Triviidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 88–91, not figured.

EXEMS Moll4248, 12sh seen by Brind (1979). There is an extensive correspondence between Kelvin Boot of RAMM and Kathy Way of the NHMUK with Crawford Cate during 1976 concerning potential type material. This centred on recognising type material for both Trivia europaea and T. arctica. The twelve shells present were photographed in the Natural History Museum London and subsequently used in Cate, 1979. Of these 12 shells 3 bear spots and one was selected by Cate (1979, p. 26–28, Fig. 19) as the Lectotype of Cypraea europaea Montagu (cited as RAMM 63/1976.1 (c) now EXEMS Moll4248/1. We regard the other 2 as Paralectotypes EXEMS Moll4248/3–4. Of the remaining 8 ribbed shells that do not bear spots Cate selected one as a Hypotype of T. arctica and this is recognised here as EXEMS Moll4248/2. The remaining 7 shells have no status. The remaining juvenile shell EXEMS Moll4248/12 was probably that recognised by Brind (1979) as representing Cypraea bullata and can be regarded as a Syntype of that taxon.

In Cate (1979) the RAMM shells were re-accessioned as 63/1976.1–2 but this system has been abandoned.

fasciatum Cardium Montagu 1808.

Parvicardium pinnulatum (Conrad, 1831) [Cardioidea, Cardiidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p 30 Tab 27 fig 6.

Cornish and Devon coasts.

EXEMS Moll3882–4 but associated with EXEMS Moll3881, which is the type of Cardium elongatum Montagu (see above). Although labelled fasciatum these 3 shells are Parvicardium exiguum (Gmelin, 1791).

ferruginosa Mya Montagu, 1808.

Tellimya ferruginosa (Montagu, 1808) [Galeommatoidea, Montacutidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 22, Tab. 26 fig. 2 and p. 166.

Belton Sands, Dunbar (from Laskey); Weymouth (from Bryer).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

flava Doris Montagu, 1804.

Polycera quadrilineata (O. F. Müller, 1776) [Polyceroidea, Polyceridae].

Montagu, 1804. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7. p. 79, Tab. 7 fig. 6.

South coast of Devonshire.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited.

flexilis Bulla Montagu 1808.

Velutina plicatilis (Muller, 1776) [Velutinoidea, Velutinidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 168–169, not figured.

Dunbar (from Laskey).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

flexuosa Tellina Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 30)

Thyasira flexuosa (Montagu, 1803) [Thyasiroidea, Thyasiridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 72–73, not figured.

EXEMS Moll3894, Syntypes, 5sh. Borrowed by Kurt Ockelmann, lectotype isolated but never published.

fossaria Helix Montagu, 1803.

Galba truncatula (Muller, 1774) [Lymnaeoidea, Lymnaeidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 372–373, Tab. 16 fig. 9.

Devonshire.

EXEMS Moll4504, not found. Not in NHMUK.

fusca Helix Montagu, 1803.

Zenobiella subrufescens (Miller, 1822) [Helicoidea, Hygromiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 424–425, Tab. 13 fig. 1.

Sandwich (from Boys).

EXEMS Moll4469, seen by Jeffreys (1879, p. 2) {“Helix fusca” One specimen is H. cartusiana, Müller, as is also the Scotch specimen mentioned by Montagu}, not found. Not in NHMUK.

fuscus Turbo Walker in Montagu, 1803.

Acicula fusca (Montagu, 1803) [Cyclophoroidea, Aciculidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 330, not figured.

Bysing Wood, Faversham.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

gadus Dentalium Montagu, 1803.

Gadila gadus (Montagu, 1803) [Gadilimorpha, Gadilidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 496, Tab. 14 fig. 7.

British Channel.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

gibbsii Helix Montagu MSS in Leach MSS 1818 (1852). (Fig. 31)

Monacha cartusiana (Müller, 1774) [Helicoidea, Hygromiidae].

EXEMS Moll4141, 2sh.

These are likely to be the first specimens found of this species in the British Isles. Leach in Gray (1852) notes that Montagu had given the name gibbsii in a manuscript of 1814 after receiving these shells from Mr Gibbs. One can assume that the Helix gibsii of Brown 1827 is the same taxon but Brown states that he got the shells from Devon collected by Leach. In Leach 1818 and Leach in Gray 1852 there is no mention of Devon as a locality for Monacha cartusiana.

glabrum Dentalium Montagu, 1803.

Caecum glabrum (Montagu, 1803) [Truncatelloidea, Caecidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 497, not figured.

Bideford: Barnstaple.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

gracilis Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 32)

Comarmondia gracilis (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Clathurellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 267, Tab. 15 fig. 5.

Bideford Bay.

EXEMS Moll4257, Lectotype, 1sh. on blue card designated by Della Bella and Scarponi (2006).

NHMUK 1998070, Paralectotypes, 5sh. not seen by Della Bella and Scarponi (2006)

gyrinus Murex Montagu, 1808 (non Linnaeus, 1758).

? Gyrineum gyrinum (Linnaeus, 1758) [Tonnoidea, Ranellidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 170, not figured.

Nuns Island, Scotland (from Laskey). Erroneous is Indo-Pacific.

Jeffreys (1867, p. 315) states {Murex gyrinus of Montagu (not of Linne), a base coin from the Laskeyan mint, is exotic}. Not in RAMM or NHMUK

haliotoidea Bulla Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 33)

Lamellaria perspicua (Linnaeus, 1758) [Velutinoidea, Velutinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 211–214, Tab. 7 fig. 6.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4243, Syntypes, 4 sh. on blue card.

Lot 4243 in RAMM register gives “Lamellaria tentaculata 4 on card” with B. haliotoidea written below. Given the size of shells suggests these are L. perspicua = haliotoidea not tentaculata.

Jeffreys (1867, p.238) stated that {The types of both Montagu’s species are in the British Museum}.

Figures 29–33. 

29. Cypraea europaea Montagu, 1808 [Trivia monacha (Da Costa, 1778)] 29.1 Label from “Rowley” box. 29.2 Apertural, lateral and apical views of lectotype, EXEMS Moll4248/1. 29.3 Trivia arctica, apertural and apical views of hypotype, EXEMS Moll4248/2. 29.4 Cypraea bullata Montagu,1803 [Trivia arctica Pulteney, 1799)] Apertural and apical views of syntype EXEMS Moll4246/12. 30 Tellina flexuosa Montagu, 1803 [Thyasira flexuosa (Montagu, 1803)] 30.1 “Rowley” box with 5sh. syntypes, EXEMS Moll3894-9. 30.2 Internal and external views of syntype selected as lectotype by Ockelmann but not published EXEMS Moll3894. 31. Helix gibbsii Montagu MSS in Leach, (1818) 1852 [Monacha cartusiana (Müller, 1774)] 31.1 Apical, lateral and basal views of specimen EXEMS Moll4141/a. 32 Murex gracilis Montagu, 1803 [Comarmondia gracilis (Montagu, 1803)] 32.1 “Rowley” box containing a single shell on blue card. 32.2 Montagu hexagonal blue card with original label. 32.3 Abapertural and apertural views of lectotype EXEMS Moll4247. 33. Bulla haliotoidea Montagu, 1803 [Lamellaria perspicua (Linnaeus, 1758)] 33.1 “Rowley” box with 4 sh. on blue card. 33.2 Montagu blue card with 4 syntypes EXEMS Moll4243a-d. 33.3 Apical view of syntype EXEMS Moll4243a and apertural view of syntpe EXEMS Moll4243b.

hepaticum Buccinum Montagu, 1803.

Nassarius nitidus (Jeffreys, 1867) [Buccinoidea, Nassariidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 243–244, Tab. 8 fig. 1.

Purbeck; Weymoth.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

hians Mactra Montagu, 1803.

Lutraria oblonga (Gmelin, 1791) [Mactroidea, Mactridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 101–102, not figured.

Between Truro and Falmouth.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

hyalina Voluta Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 34)

Columbella sp indet. [Buccinoidea, Columbellidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 101–102, Tab. 30 fig. 1.

Dunbar in Laskey’s cabinet.

NHMUK.1998073, 1sh.

Jeffreys (1830, p. 368) {I suspect that the Voluta hyalina of Montagu is only an imperfect specimen of this last variety} referring to Myosotella denticulata var. reflexa Turton.

Later (Jeffreys 1867, p. 359) states {Voluta hyalina, Montagu, as from Dunbar (Laskey); young of Columbella lactea, a common West Indian shell}.

However the shell now on the block is Minioliva cf. perplexa Olsson, 1956 a common Florida shell (det R. Voskuil, pers. comm.). The aperture has no plications and this shell does not agree in any way with the original description or figure. The original figure and that of Cominia hyalina Montagu given by Brown (1844 pl. 8 fig. 9) do however resemble a Columbella. This suggests that the specimen now attached to the block is a subsequent and poor replacement, and has no type status.

inaequivalvis Mya Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 35)

Corbula gibba (Olivi, 1792) [Myoidea, Corbulidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 38, not figured.

Salcombe Bay; coasts of Cornwall and Devon.

EXEMS Moll3865–6 Syntypes, 1 sh. + 1v although register indicates 17 shells originally.

indistinctus Turbo Montagu, 1808.

Parthenina indistincta (Montagu, 1808) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 129, not figured.

Found in the Boysian cabinet.

Noted as missing in RAMM & NHMUK by Warén (1991). Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

insculptus Turbo Montagu, 1808.

Ondina divisa (J. Adams, 1797) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 129–130, not figured.

Coast of Devon.

EXEMS Moll4453, not found. Not in NHMUK.

interstinctus Turbo J. Adams in Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 36)

Parthenina interstincta (Adams in Mont., 1803) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 324, Tab. 12 fig. 10.

Bigberry Bay, Devon.

EXEMS Moll4241, 1sh. on blue card, 2sh. loose, seen by Brind (1979).

EXEMS Moll4241/1 Neotype selected for Turbo interstictus Adams, 1797 by Warén (1991).

EXEMS Moll4241/2/3 2sh. and NHMUK 1998069, 2sh. are syntypes of T. interstictus sensu Montagu

The neotype designation has been challenged by Aartsen, Gittenberger and Goud (2000, p. 28) who state that the descriptions given by Adams (1797a) and Montagu (1803) do not agree and also note that Adams’ figures are unrecogniseable. However they maintain the priority of Adams’ name and give Jaminia obtusa Brown, 1827 as the next available. They retain the neotype chosen by Warén 1991 but now for obtusa of Brown (1827). The type locality given by Brown was Dunbar, Scotland.

jugosus Turbo Montagu 1803. (Fig. 37)

Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 586–588, not figured.

EXEMS Moll4199, 2sh. loose (6.8 and 6.25mm), blue card with 5 scars.

Label reads “in cabinet with no name” Recognition of this lot as jugosus was by RSK Barnes in litt..

EXEMS Moll4199/1 Lectotype, 1sh.. EXEMS Moll4199/2 1sh., paralectotype EXEMS Moll4198 paralectotype 1sh., NHMUK1979185 Paralectotype 1sh.; all selected by Reid (1996).

juniperi Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Abida secale (Draparnaud, 1801) [Pupilloidea, Chondrinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 340–342, Tab. 12 fig. 12.

Easton Grey, Wiltshire.

EXEMS Moll4501 not found. Not in NHMUK.

labiata Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Papillifera labiata (Montagu, 1803) [Clausilioidea, Clausilidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 362–363, Tab. 11 fig. 6.

EXEMS Moll4522 not found. Not in NHMUK.

We are unable to clarify the status of this taxon. Jeffreys (1830) suggests that Clausilia solida Draparnaud, 1805 is a junior synonym but Jeffreys (1862, p. 286–287) says labiata is perhaps C. (Alinda) biplicata and goes on to state that C. solida is quite different.

labiosa Helix Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 38)

Rissoa membranacaea (J Adams, 1800) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 400–403, Tab. 13 fig. 7.

Falmouth; coasts of Devon; Dorset; S. Wales.

EXEMS Moll4210 a lot descibed by Verduin (1982) as a mixture of two species and many indeterminate damaged shells

EXEMS Moll4210/1, Lectotype selected by Verduin (1982).

Register states “4 on card many in box all 4210”. Verduin has selected 4 shells from the box lot as labiosa with one as lectotype, his figure 37. Can presume 3 others to be paralectotypes but Verduin does not state this. Of 4 on card one is labiosa but again not selected as paralectotype. Remainder from box are membranacea or unidentifiable.

Figures 34–38. 

34. Voluta hyalina Montagu, 1808 [?] 34.1 Old mounting block and labels, reverse block reads {Voluta hyalina Mont. Test. Brit. Sup.t30 f1 |Cominia hyalina Brown Illust. | Columbella hyalina Forbes, Hanley iii.445. | Mus Mont. Coll. Laskey}. 34.2 Minioliva cf. perplexa Olsson, 1956, apertural and abapertural views, NHMUK 1998073 34.3 Minioliva cf. perplexa Olsson, 1956, SEM of apertural view, NHMUK 1998073 35. Mya inaequivalvis Montagu, 1803 [Corbula gibba (Olivi, 1792)] 35.1 Labels from wooden mounting block. no original labels present. 35.2 External views of left and right valves of syntype EXEMS Moll3865. 35.3 Internal view of solitary right valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3866. 36. Turbo interstinctus Adams in Montagu, 1803 [Parthenina interstincta (Adams, 1797)] 36.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 1 sh. and empty scars. 36.2 Neotype of T. intertinctus Adams, 1797, gold coated for SEM, EXEMS Moll4241a. 36.3 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype of T. interstictus sensu Montagu EXEMS Moll4241b. 36.4 SEM of apertural view of syntype of T. interstictus sensu Montagu EXEMS Moll4241b. 37. Turbo jugosus Montagu, 1803 [Littorna saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)] 37.1 Entry in register, states{5 in cabinet with no name}, this is repeated on the label illustrated below. 37.2 Montagu blue hexagonal card with label attached showing 5 scars. 37.3 Abapertural and apertural views of lectotype EXEMS Moll4199/1. 38. Turbo labiosa Montagu, 1803 [Rissoa membranacea (J. Adams, 1800)] 38.1 Montagu hexagonal black card and original label with 4 sh. attached. 38.2 Apertural and abapertural views of lectotype EXEMS Moll4210/1. 38.3 Paralectotypes EXEMS Moll4210/2-3. 38.4 Two shells of Rissoa membranacea isolated from lot EXEMS Moll4210 by Verduin, 1982.

lackhamensis Helix Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 39)

Ena montana (Draparnaud, 1801) [Enidoidea, Enidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 394–395, Tab.11 fig. 3.

Lackham in Wiltshire.

EXEMS Moll4130 Syntypes, 2sh. EXEMS Moll4506, not found.

lacuna Helix Montagu, 1803.

Lacuna parva (da Costa, 1778) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 428–429, Tab. 13 fig. 6.

Coast of Devon, Southampton and Folkestone.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

lacustris Nautilus Montagu, 1803.

Segmentina nitida (Muller, 1774) [Planorboidea, Planorbidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 191–195, Tab. 6 fig. 3.

Sandwich from Boys.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

laevis Chiton Pennant sensu Montagu, 1803.

Callochiton septemvalvis (Montagu, 1803) [Chitonoidea, Callochitonidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 2–3, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

laminatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 40)

Cochlodina laminata (Montagu, 1803) [Clausilioidea, Clausilidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 359–361, Tab. 11 fig. 4.

Lackham Wood and Bow Wood, Wiltshire

EXEMS Moll4123, Syntypes, 5 sh. +2 apices loose.

laskeyi Tellina Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 41)

? Moerella donacina (Linnaeus, 1758) Not this species. [Tellinoidea]

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 28–29, Tab. 28 fig. 3.

Firth of Forth.

EXEMS Moll4284, Syntypes, 2v. NHMUK 20170124 Syntypes, 4sh +3v.

Huber (2015) places this species in the synonymy of Moerella donacina but this is certainly in error.

Jeffreys (1863, p. 410) places it in the genus Donax.{“I have one of the original specimens (a single valve), owing to the kindness of my late friend Mr Dillwyn, who received it from Colonel Montagu. It is supposed to be a West-Indian shell; and there is no satisfactory evidence that it has ever been found in the British Seas, much less in the Firth of Forth.}

The shells have a resemblance to both Psammobiidae and Donacidae but the presence of lateral teeth, seen best in the right valve, supports the latter and agrees with Jeffreys. However, we cannot place this shell among the Caribbean fauna. It has the aspect of the genus Tentidonax (Rudo von Cosel pers. comm) but not a known West African species.

linearis Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 42)

Raphitoma linearis (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Raphitomidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 261–262, Tab. 9 fig. 4.

Falmouth; Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4254, Paralectotypes, 2sh on blue card, 2 sh loose, 2 empty scars. “Borrowed by A. Warén, no designation made.

NHMUK 1995090/1–10, Lectotype and paralectotypes 10sh. selected by Rolan, Otero-Schmitt and Fernandes (1998).

Figures 39–42. 

39 Helix lackhamensis Montagu, 1803 [Ena montana (Draparnaud, 1801)] 39.1 Entry in register as Bulimus lackhamensis. 39.2 “Rowley” box with 2 sh., no original labels. 39.3 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4130a. 49 Turbo laminatus Montagu, 1803 [Cochlodina laminata (Montagu, 1803)] 40.1 “Rowley” box containing 5 sh. + 2 frag., all syntypes EXEMS Moll4123. 40.2 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4123a. 41. Tellina laskeyi Montagu, 1808 [Tentidonax sp.] 41.1 Register entry and original label for EXEMS Moll4248. 41.2 Exterior and interior of right valve of syntype EXEMS Moll4248/1, pallial sinus highlighted. 41.3 Old NHMUK labels indicating provenance from Laskey. Larger label reads {according to Humphreys native of W. Indies | by Montagu said to be dredged by Laskey in the Firth of Forth} 41.4 Interior and exterior views of left valves and interior of right valve of 1 of 4 complete syntypes NHMUK 20170124. 42 Murex linearis Montagu, 1803 [Raphitoma linearis (Montagu, 1803)] 42.1 Old labels and mounting block for type series in NHMUK. 42.2 Abapertural and apertural views of lectotype NHMUK 1995090/1. 42.3 Montagu hexagonal blue card with paralectotypes, EXEMS Moll4245. 42.4 Abapertural and apertural views of paralectotype EXEMS Moll4245a.

lutea Helix Montagu, 1803.

Radix balthica (Linnaeus, 1758) [Lymnaeoidea, Lymnaeidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 380–381, Tab. 16 fig. 6.

South Devon; Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4117, not found. Not in NHMUK.

macula Buccinum Montagu, 1803.

Nassarius incrassatus (Strom, 1768) [Buccinoidea, Nassariidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 241–242, Tab. 8 fig. 4.

Purbeck; Weymouth.

EXEMS Moll4411, not found. Not in NHMUK.

maculata Doris Montagu, 1804.

Doto maculata (Montagu, 1804) [Cladobrachia, Dotidae].

Montagu, 1804. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7. p. 80, Tab. 7 figs 8–9.

Coast of Devon.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited.

margarita Helix Montagu, 1808.

Margarites helicinus (Phipps, 1774) [Trochoidea, Margaritidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 143–144, not figured.

Dunbar (from Laskey).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

marginata Doris Montagu, 1804.

Cadlina laevis (Linnaeus, 1767) [Doridoidea, Cadlinidae].

Montagu, 1804. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7. p. 79, Tab. 7 fig. 7.

Coast of Devon.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited.

marginatus Turbo Montagu 1808. (Fig. 43)

?Rissoa auriscalpium (Linnaeus, 1758) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 128, not figured.

Guernsey from Laskey.

NHMUK 20170126, 4sh. with labels that suggest these are ex Laskey coll and represent T. marginatus Montagu.

The name Turbo marginatus is not in WoRMS. The synonymy is from Jeffreys (1867, p. 49) and he regarded the record as spurious.

membranacea Lamellaria Montagu, 1816.

Pleurobranchus membranaceus (Montagu 1816) [Pleurobranchoidea, Pleurobranchidae].

Montagu G 1816 Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 11, p. 184–186, Tab. 12 fig. 3.

Kingsbridge.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

minima Venus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 44)

Gouldia minima (Montagu, 1803) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 121, Tab. 3 fig. 3.

Falmouth.

EXEMS Moll3847, Syntypes, 2v. on blue card. NHMUK 1998055, Syntype 1sh.

minimum Buccinum Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 45)

Chauvetia brunnea (Donovan, 1804) [Buccinoidea, Buccinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 247, Tab. 8 fig. 2.

Mouth of R. Aun (Avon); Devon; Salcombe; Torcross.

EXEMS Moll4259, Syntypes, 3 sh. Lectotype selected by AA Luque but not published.

minutissima Mactra Montagu, 1808.

Goodallia triangularis (Montagu, 1803) [Crassatelloidea, Astartidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 37–38, not figured.

No locality cited.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

muricatulum Cardium Montagu 1803.

Parvicardium exiguum (Gmelin, 1791) [Cardioidea, Cardiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 85, not figured.

Sheppy (Walker).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Not in WoRMS, Jeffreys (1863, p. 280) states {“C. muricatulum of Montagu (from Walker, pl. iii. f.83, 84) the fry of this species (C. exiguum)”}.

muricatus Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 46)

Trophonopsis muricata (Montagu, 1803) [Muricoidea, Muricidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 262, Tab. 9 fig. 2.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4266, Syntype 1sh loose with octagonal blue card with 1 scar.

nebula Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 47)

Bela nebula (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Mangeliidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 267–268, Tab. 15 fig. 6.

Falmouth, Salcombe and Weymouth (from Bryer).

EXEMS Moll4253 1sh. attached to octagonal blue card, 4sh. in capsules.

EXEMS Moll4253/1, Lectotype and EXEMS Moll4253/2–5, Paralectotypes 4sh. designated by Scarponi et al. (2014).

NHMUK 1998043/1998047/1998050, Paralectotypes, 7sh. not examined or cited by Scarponi et al. (2014).

Figures 43–47. 

43. Turbo marginatus Montagu, 1808 [? Rissoa auriscalpium (Linnaeus, 1758)] 43.1 Old NHMUK labels indicating provenance as Laskey Coll. 43.2 Label from reverse block reads {Rissoa auriscalpium | Zipporia Drummondii Leach | Turbo marginatus Laskey}. 43.3 Abapertural and apertural views of 1 of 4 potential types NHMUK 20170126. 44. Venus minima Montagu, 1803 [Gouldia minima (Montagu, 1803)] 44.1 Montagu blue hexagonal card with shells attached 44.2 External and internal views of right valves EXEMS Moll3847, syntypes. 45. Buccinum minimum Montagu, 1803 [Chauvetia brunnea (Donovan, 1804)] 45.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 7 scars and original label. 45.2 Syntype series EXEMS Moll4259a-c. 45.3 Apertural and abapertural views of largest syntype EXEMS Moll4249a. 46. Murex muricatus Montagu, 1803 [Trophonopsis muricata (Montagu, 1803)] 46.1 “Rowley” box containing blue card. 46.2 Montagu hexagonal blue card with single scar. 46.3 Apertural and abapertural views of unique syntype EXEMS Moll4266. 47. Murex nebula Montagu, 1803 [Bela nebula (Montagu, 1803)] 47.1 “Rowley” box label for lot 4253. 47.2 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 1 sh. attached and original label. 47.3 Type series EXEMS Moll4253/1-5. 47.4 Abapertural and apertural views of lectotype, EXEMS Moll4253/1.

nitens Mya Montagu, 1808.

Ervilia nitens (Montagu 1808) [Tellinoidea, Semelidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 165–166, not figured.

Dunbar (from Laskey); Erroneus is Western Atlantic, Caribbean.

Lectotype, RSM 1866.21a.43, selected from material in the Bean collection in National Museums Scotland by Morton and Scott (1990). Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

nitidissimus Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Ebala nitidissima (Montagu, 1803) [Murchisonelloidea, Murchisonellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 299, Tab. 12 fig. 1.

Falmouth Harbour.

EXEMS Moll4326, not found. Not in NHMUK.

nivosus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 48)

Jordaniella nivosa (Montagu, 1803) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 326, not figured.

South coast of Devon.

EXEMS Moll4410, not found, noted as “wanting” in register.

NHMUK 1998049 Syntype 1sh.

Jeffreys (1867, p. 117) stated {“Montagu’s type with “nivosus” in his handwriting is still preserved in the British Museum”} While NHMUK 1998049 is marked as “Mus Montagu” none of the labeling is in Montagu’s hand. This shell was photographed by GW Chaster in 1896 and this may be linked to his subsequent creation of the genus Jordaniella with T. nivosus as the type species.

nodosum Cardium Montagu, 1803.

Acanthocardia tuberculata (Linnaeus, 1758) [Cardioidea, Cardiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 81, not figured.

Falmouth Harbour.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Jeffreys (1863 p. 275) stated {“The C. cileare of Donovan (but not of Linne) and C. nodosum of Montagu (but not of Turton) are the young of this species” (C. tuberculatum)}.

novacula Solen Montagu, 1803..

Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) [Solenoidea, Pharidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 47–48, not figured.

Laugharne, Carmarthenshire.

Not in RAMM but seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.3) {“Solen novaculaS. siliqua, having the cardinal teeth broken off}. Not in NHMUK.

obtusa Bulla Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 49)

Retusa obtusa (Montagu, 1803) [Bulloidea, Retusidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 223–224, Tab. 7 fig. 3.

EXEMS Moll4073–4087, Syntypes 15sh, 6 on octagonal blue card, to be cited by A. Valdes in McLean’s North East Pacific Gastropods.

octanfracta Helix Montagu, 1803.

Omphiscola glaber (Muller, 1774) [Lymnaeoidea, Lymnaeidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 396–398, Tab. 11 fig. 8.

Between Fowey and Looe in Cornwall.

EXEMS Moll4505, not found. Not in NHMUK.

orbiculata Venus Montagu, 1808.

Ctena orbiculata (Montagu, 1808) [Lucinoidea, Lucinidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 23, Tab. 29 fig. 7.

Dunbar (from Laskey); Erroneus is Caribbean.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Jeffreys (1863, p. 237) states {Another species, the Venus orbiculata of Montagu, said to have been found by Laskey at Dunbar, is also spurious. It is the Lucina squamosa of Lamarck, and West Indian}

Neotype in Field Museum, Chicago, FMNH 339457 selected by Taylor et al. (2013).

ovalis Mya Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 50)

Unio tumidus (Retzius, 1788) [Unionoidea, Unionidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 34–36 and Part 2 p. 563–564. not figured

EXEMSMoll4029, Syntype 1sh.

pallidus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 51)

nomen dubium

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 325–326, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

NHMUK 1998068, 1sh. Status uncertain.

Jeffreys (1867, p. 126) writes “But the specimen now in the British Museum, which has the name “pallidus” in Montagu’s handwriting affixed to the undersides of the tablet, is a broken and worn Rissoa parva var. interrupta. It is unfortunately to be probable that when Leach rearranged this part of the collection, sufficient care was not taken to preserve the identical specimens which had belonged to the first-named excellent zoologist, and that in the present case the type may be lost, and replaced by the wretched substitute now on the museum tablet”

The shell now associated with the assumed type lot is not Rissoa parva but Ondina divisa (J. Adams, 1797) = Turbo insculptus Montagu, 1808 (Serge Gofas pers comm). The box does bear a label in Montagu’s hand “palidus” but the remainder of the information is of more recent origin. The shell itself was attached to a narrow piece of black shiny paper, a format that is not associated with the original or subsequent mounting of the Montagu collection by Leach or Gray. If this is the lot that Jeffreys saw then the Rissoa shell has itself been replaced. The uncertain provenance indicates that this shell should not be regarded as the type of Turbo pallidus or indeed Turbo insculptus.

paphia Venus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 52)

Clausinella fasciata (da Costa, 1778) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 110- 111, not figured.

Cornwall about Falmouth; Milton Sands Devon.

EXEMS Moll3841, Syntypes, 6sh. + 1v. There are no original labels but the register entry does give the name “Venus paphia” under that of “Venus fasciata” suggesting that these shells do represent Montagu’s species.

Figures 48–52. 

48. Turbo nivosus Montagu, 1803 [Jordaniella nivosa (Montagu, 1803)] 48.1 Base of box label, probably by Chaster but indicates provenance of Montagu Coll. 48.2 Apertural and abapertural views of unique syntype, NHMUK 1998049. 48.3 SEM of abapertural view of above, NHMUK 1998049. 49. Bulla obtusa Montagu, 1803 [Retusa obtusa (Montagu, 1803)] 49.1 “Rowley” box containing 15 syntypes EXEMS Moll4073-87. 49.2 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 6 sh. attached. 49.3 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4074. 49.4 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4073. 50. Mya ovalis Montagu, 1803 [Unio tumidus (Retzius, 1788)] 50.1 Exterior of right valve with registration disc attached to unique syntype EXEMS Moll4029. 50.2 Interior views of right and left valves of unique syntype EXEMS Moll4029. 51. Turbo pallidus Montagu, 1803 [nomen dubium] 51.1 Base of box label with original Montagu label “palidus” affixed. 51.2 Apertural and abapertural views of associated shell, is Ondina divisa NHMUK 1998068. 51.3 SEM of abapertural view of above, NHMUK 1998068. 52. Venus paphia Montagu, 1803 [Clausinella fasciata (da Costa, 1778)] 52.1 Extract from register indicating identity as Venus paphia. 52.2 “Rowley” box containing 6sh. + 1v all syntypes, EXEMS Moll3841-6. 52.3 Exterior of right valve and interior of left valve of syntype EXEMS Moll 3841. 52.4 Exterior of left valve of syntype EXEMS Moll 3842.

pedata Doris Montagu, 1816.

Flabellina pedata (Montagu, 1816) [Doridoidea, Dorididae].

Montagu, 1816. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 11(2). p. 197–198, Tab. 14 fig. 1.

Coast of Devon.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited.

pennigera Doris Montagu, 1813.

Thecacera pennigera (Montagu, 1813) [Doridoidea, Dorididae].

Montagu G 1813 Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 11(1). p. 17–18, Tab 4 fig. 4.

Coast of Devon.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited.

perforans Venus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 53)

Venerupis corrugata (Gmelin, 1791) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 127–128, Tab. 3 fig. 6.

Plymouth.

EXEMS Moll3810–3811, Syntypes, 5 sh.

pervium Vermiculum Montagu, 1803.

Caecum glabrum Montagu, 1803. [Truncatelloidea, Caecidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 518–519, not figured.

Reculver.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Not in WoRMS. Synonymy from Jeffreys, 1867, p. 79. {Montagu called it (from another of Walker’s figures, showing the centre whorl broken off) Vermiculum pervium}

petraea Helix Montagu, 1803.

Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 403–404, not figured.

Mouth of R. Aun (Avon) at Bantum (Bantham) in Devon; Swanage.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

pholadia Mya Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 54)

Rocellaria dubia (Pennant, 1777) [Gastrochaenoidea, Gastrochaenidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 28–30 and Part 2 p. 559–561, not figured.

Weymouth, Torbay, Plymouth.

EXEMS Moll3662–3666, Syntypes, 3sh.+ 2v.+1frag.

pinna Solen Montagu, 1803.

Pandora pinna (Montagu, 1803) [Pandoroidea, Pandoridae]

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 566–567, Tab. 15 fig. 3.

Torcross.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

pinnatifida Doris Montagu, 1804.

Doto pinnatifida (Montagu, 1804) [Cladobrachia, Dotidae].

Montagu, 1804. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7. p. 78 Tab. 7 figs 2–3.

Coast of Devon.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited

plebeia Donax Montagu, 1803.

Donacilla cornea (Poli, 1791) [Mactroidea, Mesodesmatidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 107–108, Tab. 5 fig 2.

Weymouth (from Bryer).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Although attributed to Montagu in WoRMS this name is first used by Pulteney (1799) as stated by Montagu.

plicatus Mytilus Gmelin sensu Montagu, 1808.

Saxicavella jeffreysi Winckworth, 1930 [Galeommatoidea, Basterotiidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 70, not figured.

Skye from Laskey.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

plicatus Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Odostomia plicata (Montagu, 1803) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 325, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4354, not found. Not in NHMUK.

plumula Bulla Montagu, 1803.

Berthella plumula (Montagu, 1803) [Pleurobranchoidea, Pleurobranchidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 214–215, Tab. 15 fig. 9.

Milton Sands in Devon.

EXEMS Moll4042–3, Syntypes 2 sh.

These shells were attached to a Montagu blue card but then assigned to the Grant Bequest in error.

NHMUK1998039, Syntypes. 3sh.

praecisus Mytilus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 56)

Sphenia binghami Turton, 1822 [Myoidea, Myidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 165–166, Tab. 4 fig. 2.

Plymouth; Ilfracombe;Wales.

EXEMS Moll4292. Syntypes 2sh.

prismatica Ligula Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 57)

Abra prismatica (Montagu, 1808) [Tellinoidea, Semelidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 23–24, Tab. 26 fig. 3.

Belton Sands near Dunbar (from Laskey); Portobello and Musselburgh (from Laskey and Boys).

EXEMS Moll3731–5, Syntypes, 3sh. + 2v.

Figures 53–57. 

53. Venus perforans Montagu, 1803 [Venerupis corrugata (Gmelin, 1791)] 53.1 Exterior of right valve with registration disc for syntype EXEMS Moll3810. 53.2 Exterior and interior of left valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3810. 53.3 Interior of left valve and exterior of right valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3811. 54. Mya pholadia Montagu, 1803 [Rocellaria dubia (Pennant, 1777)] 54.1 Extract from register indicating identity as “Mya pholadia”. 54.2 Exterior of right valve and ventral gape of syntype EXEMS Moll3664. 54.3 Exterior and interior of left valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3665. 55. Bulla plumula Montagu, 1803 [Berthella plumula (Montagu, 1803)] 55.1 Green papered block with Montagu card attached. 55.2 Montagu hexagonal black card with 2 syntypes EXEMS Moll4042-3. 55.3 External and internal views of syntype EXEMS Moll4042. 56. Mytilus praecisus Montagu, 1803 [Sphenia binghami Turton, 1822] 56.1 Montagu label with shell attached and identified as lot 4292. 56.2 Internal views of right and left valves of unique syntype EXEMS Moll4249/1. 56.3 External view of left valve of unique syntype EXEMS Moll4249/1. 57. Ligula prismatica Montagu, 1808 [Abra prismatica (Montagu, 1808)] 57.1 Replacement box containing Montagu coll lot 3731-35. 57.2 Internal and external views of right and left valves of syntype EXEMS Moll3731.

proximus Murex Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 58)

Pleurotoma proxima (Montagu, 1808) [Conoidea, Turridae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 118, Tab. 30 fig. 8.

Tyningham Sands Dunbar (Laskey); Erroneus.

Jeffreys (1867, p. 381) stated {P. proximum (Murex proximus, Mont.) is West-Indian. Laskey pretended to have found it on Tyningham sands near Dunbar. The specimen in the British Museum marked ‘proximus Montagu’, however, is a worn P. nebula, and quite unlike the description and figure given by then author}.

This latter shell is NHMUK 1998043 and is figured here. It should not be considered the type of M. proximus.

pullastra Venus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 59)

Venerupis corrugata (Gmelin, 1791) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 125–127, not figured.

Coast of Devon.

EXEMS Moll3804–9, Syntypes, 7sh.

punctura Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 60)

Alvania punctura (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 320, Tab. 12 fig. 5.

Whitsand Bay, Cornwall; Salcombe Bay in Devon.

EXEMS Moll4222, Syntypes 3sh. on blue card, 1 sh loose, 1 scar on card.

Reported as 4 syntypes in Warén (1996).

purpurea Mya Montagu, 1808.

Turtonia minuta (Fabricius, 1780) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 21, not figured.

Devon coast.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

purpureus Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 61)

Raphitoma purpurea (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Raphitomidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 260–261, Tab. 9 fig. 3.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4258, Paralectotypes (Fig. 61.3) 2 sh. loose, octagonal blue card with 2 scars, seen by Dean (1936) and Brind (1979). Borrowed by A. Warén, no designations made by him.

NHMUK 1995089/1–3, Lectotype (Fig. 61.2) and paralectotypes selected by Rolan et al. (1998).

quadricornis Doris Montagu, 1813.

Okenia aspera (Alder & Hancock, 1845) [Doridoidea, Dorididae].

Montagu G 1813. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 11(1) p. 17, Tab. 4 fig. 5.

Coast of Devon.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited.

Montagu’s name has been placed on the offical list of rejected names, Bull. Zool. Nom. Opinion 1014.

quadrifasciatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 62)

Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 328–329, not figured.

Falmouth; Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4188, Syntypes, 5sh. on blue card.

Although regarded as a synonym of L. vincta Montagu likens it to Cochlea parva da Costa, which is Lacuna parva (da Costa). The thickness of these shells is atypical making their identity uncertain.

Figures 58–62. 

58. Murex proximus Montagu, 1808 [Pleurotoma proxima (Montagu, 1808)] 58.1 Old NHMUK block with reverse text of {Mus. Montagu | Murex proximus Mont | ‘the specimen in the British Museum marked ‘Mus Montagu’ however, is a worn P. nebula” Jeffreys Brit.Conch. iv. p.387}. 58.2 Apertural and apertural views of shell attached to block and registered as NHMUK 1998043 is Bela nebula (Montagu, 1803) but is not a syntype of M. proximus or M. nebula. 59. Venus pullastra Montagu, 1803 [Venerupis corrugata (Gmelin, 1791)] 59.1 Exterior of right valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3804 with original Montagu label {Pullastra}affixed. 59.2 Interior of right valve and exterior of left valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3804 59.3 Syntype series EXEMS Moll3804-9. 60. Turbo punctura Montagu, 1803 [Alvania punctura (Montagu, 1803)] 60.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 3 sh. and empty scars; syntypes EXEMS Moll4222b-d. 60.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4222a. 60.3 SEM of apertural view of EXEMS Moll4222a. 61. Murex purpureus Montagu, 1803 [Raphitoma purpurea (Montagu, 1803)] 61.1 Old NHMUK labels indicating provenance of Montagu Coll. 61.2 Abapertural and apertural views of lectotype NHMUK 1995089/1. 61.3 Montagu blue hexagonal card with 2 paralectotypes EXEMS Moll4258. 62. Turbo quadrifasciatus Montagu, 1803 [Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803)] 62.1 “Rowley” box containing Montagu card. 62.2 Montagu blue card with label and 5 sh. attached, EXEMS Moll4188a-e. 62.3 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4188a.

radula Tellina Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 63)

Lucinoma borealis (Linnaeus, 1767) [Lucinoidea, Lucinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 68–69, Tab. 2 figs 1–2 and Part 2 p. 567–568.

South Devon; Falmouth; Laugharne in Carmarthenshire.

EXEMS Moll3903–3904, Syntypes 2 sh.

reflexa Venus Montagu, 1808.

Venus casina Linnaeus, 1758 [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 40–41 and p. 168, not figured.

Off Isle of May, Firth of Forth (Laskey); South Devon.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

reticulatus Turbo Adams, 1797 sensu Montagu, 1803.

Alvania beani (Hanley in Thorpe, 1844) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 322–323, not figured.

From Boys no locality given.

Not in RAMM but seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.3) {“T. reticulatusR. punctura}. Not in NHMUK.

retiformis Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Alvania punctura (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 330, not figured.

Sandwich (Walker).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

rostrata Arca Montagu, 1808.

Lembulus montagui (Gray, 1825) [Nuculanoidea, Nuculanidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 55–56, Tab. 27 fig. 7.

St Abbs Head (from Laskey); Erroneus is West African.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

rotundata Tellina Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 64)

Diplodonta rotundata (Montagu, 1803) [Ungulinoidea, Ungulinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 71–72, Tab. 2 fig. 3.

Poole Harbour.

EXEMS Moll3905–7, Syntypes 3v.

ruber Turbo Adams, 1797 sensu Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 65)

Barleeia unifasciata (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Barleeidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 320–321, not figured.

Whitsand Bay in Cornwall.

EXEMS Moll4214, Syntypes 3sh on blue card.

Jeffreys (1867, p.58) stated {Turbo ruber of Adams (from the Pembrokeshire coast) appears to have been derived from a reddish specimen of Rissoa parva var. interrupta} From the figures in Adams (1797) it would seem impossible to confirm this statement or indeed what species is actually represented by such a curt description and inadequate figure.

rubra Donax Montagu, 1808.

? Coralliophaga lithophagella (Lamarck, 1819) [Arcticoidea, Trapezidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 38, not figured.

No locality given.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

The suggested identity of this taxon is from Jeffreys (1863, p. 264).

rubrum Cardium Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 66)

Lasaea rubra (Montagu, 1803) [Galeommatoidea, Lasaeidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 83–84, not figured.

Falmouth; Kingsbridge.

EXEMS Moll3918–20, Syntypes 2sh. +1v. The interior of the figured valve shows retained brooded post larval shells.

rufa Nerita Montagu, 1808.

Euspira montagui (Forbes, 1838) [Naticoidea, Naticidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 150–152 Tab. 30 fig. 3.

Dunbar (Laskey).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

rufescens Helix Montagu, 1803.

Trochulus hispidus (Linnaeus, 1758) [Helicoidea, Hygromiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 420–422, not figured.

England.

EXEMS Moll4474, not found but seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.2) {“Helix rufescens, hispid” H. hispida, L.}. Not in NHMUK.

rufus Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 67)

Propebela rufus (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Mangeliidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 263–264, not figured.

Sandwich; Biddeford Bay; Wales; Devon; Dorset.

EXEMS Moll4252, Syntype 1sh. on blue card, 1 empty scar.

Figures 63–67. 

63. Tellina radula Montagu, 1803 [Lucinoma borealis (Linnaeus, 1767)] 63.1 Internal and external views of right and left valves of syntype EXEMS Moll3904. 64. Tellina rotundata Montagu, 1803 [Diplodonta rotundata (Montagu, 1803)] 64.1 External and internal view of right valve, syntype EXEMS Moll3905. 64.2 External and internal view of left valve, syntype EXEMS Moll3906. 65. Turbo ruber J. Adams, 1797 sensu Montagu, 1803 [Barleeia unifasciata (Montagu, 1803)] 65.1 Montagu hexagonal black card with label and 3sh., syntypes EXEMS Moll4214a-c. 65.2 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4214a. 66. Cardium rubrum Montagu, 1803 [Lasaea rubra (Montagu, 1803)] 66.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 2sh +1v, syntypes EXEMS Moll3918-20. 66.2 Internal view of left valve syntype with brooded juvenile shells retained EXEMS Moll3920. 66.3 External view of left valve syntype EXEMS Moll3920. 67. Murex rufus Montagu, 1803 [Propebela rufus (Montagu, 1803)] 67.1 “Rowley” box label for lot 4252. 67.2 Montagu blue card with 1sh. and 1 empty scar. 67.3 Apertural and abapertural views of unique syntype EXEMS Moll4252.

semicostatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 68)

Onoba semicostata (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 326–327, not figured.

South coast of Devon.

EXEMS Moll4448, not found but seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.3) {“Turbo semicostatusRissoa striata Adams; young}

NHMUK 20170013, Syntypes, 2sh.

semistriatus Turbo Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 69)

Crisilla semistriata (Montagu, 1808) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 136–137, not figured.

Coast of south Devon.

EXEMS Moll4452, not found.

NHMUK 20170012, Syntypes 3 whole shells, 3 broken.

On the reverse of the mounting block is an old label “T. interruptus”. This refers to Turbo interruptus Adams, 1800 now a synonym of Rissoa parva. This shell is smooth unlike the shells present, which do conform to the original description of T. semistriatus.

septangularis Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 70)

Haedropleura septangularis (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Horaiclavidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 268–269, Tab. 9 fig. 5.

Falmouth and Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4251, Lectotype, 1sh. on blue card, selected by Bernasconi and Robba (1984).

NHMUK 1998051, Paralectotypes 5sh., not cited by Bernasconi and Robba (1984).

septemvalvis Chiton Montagu, 1803.

Callochiton septemvalvis (Montagu, 1803) [Chitonoidea, Callochitonidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 3, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

serpuloides Helix Montagu, 1808.

Skenea serpuloides (Montagu, 1808) [Trochoidea, Skeneidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 147, Tab. 21 fig. 3.

Devon coast.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

sexdentatus Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Vertigo antivertigo (Draparnaud, 1801) [Pupilloidea, Vertiginidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 337–338, Tab. 12 fig. 8.

Cornwall; Devon; Lackham in Wiltshire.

EXEMS Moll4129 and Moll4516, not found. Not in NHMUK.

simillimus Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Pyrgiscus rufus (Philippi, 1836) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 136, not figured.

Jura from Laskey.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Not in WoRMS, synonymy from Jeffreys (1867, p. 164).

sinuosus Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 71)

Drillia sinuosa (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Drillidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 264–265 Tab. 9 fig. 8.

Weymouth (from Bryer); erroneous St Helena?

NHMUK 20170014, Syntype 1sh.

The reverse label reads

P. sinuosum Gray

Murex sinuosus Mont

Pl. striata ? Kiener t.14, f.2 ? Reeve C.Ic.t ?? f. 144

Africa

Weymouth Bryer Mus Mont.

The shell figured by Brown (1844, pl.V fig. 40) is a likeness and the locality data is identical but Brown attributes the name to himself, not Montagu.

Smith (1890) likens his Pleurotoma (Clavus) amanda, from St Helena, to this species.

spinifera Venus Montagu, 1803.

Myrtea spinifera (Montagu, 1803) [Lucinoidea, Lucinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 577–579, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

spiralis Turbo Montagu 1803. (Fig. 72)

Spiralinella spiralis (Montagu, 1803) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 323–324, Tab.12 fig. 9.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4240, Syntypes, 3sh. on blue card. Noted as syntypes under Chrysallida spiralis by Warén (1991).

Figures 68–72. 

68. Turbo semicostatus Montagu, 1803 [Onoba semicostatus (Montagu, 1803)] 68.1 Old NHMUK labels. 68.2 Apertural (SEM) and abapertural views of larger syntype NHMUK 20170013/1. 68.3 Apertural (SEM) view of smaller syntype NHMUK 20170013/2. 69. Turbo semistriatus Montagu, 1808 [Crisilla semistriata (Montagu, 1808)] 69.1 Old NHMUK mounting block, front label reads Turbo semistriatus while on reverse is an affixed label for T. interruptus. 69.2 Apertural and apertural views of syntype NHMUK 20170012/1. 69.3 SEM of apertural view of syntype NHMUK 20170012/1. 70. Murex septangularis Montagu, 1803 [Haedropleura septangularis (Montagu, 1803)] 70.1 “Rowley” box containing Montagu card. 70.2 Montagu blue card with single shell and original label EXEMS Moll4251. 70.3 Apertural and abapertural views of lectotype EXEMS Moll4251. 71. Murex sinuosus Murex, 1803 [Drillia sinuosa (Montagu, 1803)] 70.1 Old NHMUK mounting with 1 sh. attached. Reverse reads {P. sinuosum Gray | Murex sinuosum Mont | Pl. striata Kiener t.14. f.2 ? Reeve C. Ic t.17. f 144 | Africa | Weymouth Bryer Mus Montagu}. 70.2 Abapertural and apertural view of unique syntype NHMUK 20170014. 72. Turbo spiralis Montagu, 1803 [Spiralinella spiralis (Montagu, 1803)] 72.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 3 sh. attached EXEMS Moll4240a-c. 72.2 Apertural (SEM) and abapertural vies of syntype EXEMS Moll4240a.

NHMUK 1998041 and NHMUK 2004051 Syntypes 2sh. + 3sh.

squamosus Solen Montagu, 1803.

Lepton squamosum (Montagu, 1803) [Galeommatoidea, Leptonidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 565–566, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

striata Mya Montagu, 1816. (Fig. 73)

Lyonsia norwegica (Gmelin, 1791) [Pandoroidea, Lyonsiidae].

Montagu G 1816 Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 11, p. 188 Tab. 13 fig. 1A.

Tenby (from Lyons).

EXEMS Moll3702, Syntype 1sh.

striatulus Turbo Montagu 1803. (Fig. 74)

Alvania carinata (da Costa, 1778) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 306–307 Tab. 10 fig. 5.

Falmouth Harbour.

EXEMS Moll4216, Syntypes, 2sh.

striatus Mytilus Montagu, 1803.

nomen dubium ?fry of Modiolus spp. [Mytiloidea, Mytilidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 15, figure in Walker (1784, fig. 75).

Reculver; Sandwich.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

striatus Turbo Adams, 1797 sensu Montagu,1803. (Fig. 75)

Onoba semicostata (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 312–313, not figured.

Plymouth; Devon; Cornwall; Pembrokeshire.

EXEMS Moll4219, Syntypes, 5 sh. on octagonal blue card.

EXEMS Moll4220, Syntype, 1 sh. on octagonal blue card with 4 scars.

Reported as “presumably lost” by Warén (1996). Ponder selected a lectotype in 1986 but this was never published.

Turbo striatus of Adams, 1797 is a junior primary homonym of Turbo striatus Da Costa, 1778

subauriculatus Pecten Montagu 1808.

Limatula subauriculata (Montagu, 1808) [Limoidea, Limidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 63, Tab. 29 fig. 2.

Trawled off coast of Devon.

Not in RAMM but seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.2) {“Pecten subauriculata” is represented by two specimens thus named, but in separate boxes. The smaller specimen agrees with Montagu’s description and figure and is a quarter of an inch long. The larger specimen is marked “Zetland, Mr Fleming” this is Lima elliptica, Jeffreys and is half-an-inch long}. Not in NHMUK

subcarinata Helix Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 76)

Tornus subcarinatus (Montagu, 1803) [Truncatelloidea, Tornidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 438–439, Tab. 7 fig. 9.

Salcombe Bay, Bigberry Bay and Milton Sands; Kent from Lyons.

EXEMS Moll4314, Syntypes, 4 sh. on blue octagonal card.

subcordata Venus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 77)

Venus verrucosa Linnaeus, 1758 [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 121–122, Tab. 3 fig. 1.

Falmouth Harbour, Montagu doubted it as British.

NHMUK 1998034, Syntype 1v.

Jeffreys (1863, p. 341) stated {and in its younger state (V. verrucosa) it is probably the V. subcordata of Montagu}.

Figures 73–77. 

73. Mya striata Montagu, 1816 [Lyonsia norvegica (Gmelin, 1791)] 73.1 Exterior and interior views of right and left valves of syntype EXEMS Moll3702. 74. Turbo striatulus Turbo Montagu, 1803 [Alvania carinata (da Costa, 1778)] 74.1 “Rowley”box containing Montagu card. 74.2 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 2 sh. attached, syntypes, EXEMS Moll4216a-b. 74.3 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4216a. 75. Turbo striatus Adams, 1797 sensu Montagu, 1803 [Onoba semicostata (Montagu, 1803)] 75.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with label and 5 shells, all syntypes EXEMS Moll4219a-e. 75.2 Apertural (SEM) and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4219a 75.3 Montagu hexagonal black card with original label and 1sh attached and 3 empty scars EXEMS Moll4220. 75.4 Apertural view of syntype EXEMS Moll4220. 76. Helix subcarinata Montagu, 1803 [Tornus subcarinatus (Montagu, 1803)] 76.1 Montagu hexagonal black card with 4sh., syntypes EXEMS Moll4314a-d. 76.2 Lateral view of syntype EXEMS Moll4314a. 76.3 SEMs of apical and basal views of syntype EXEMS Moll4314a. 77. Venus subcordata Montagu, 1803 [Venus verrucosa Linnaeus, 1758] 77.1 Old NHMUK mounting block with single valve attached. 77.2 Exterior and interior of unique left valve, ventral and posterior areas damaged, unique syntype NHMUK 1998034.

suborbicularis Mya Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 78)

Kellia suborbicularis (Montagu, 1803) [Galeommatoidea, Kelliidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 39, not figured.

Plymouth, Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll3908–17, Syntypes, 11sh.

subrhomboidea Venus Montagu, 1808.

Petricola lithophaga (Retzius, 1788) [Veneroidea, Petricolidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 48–49, Tab. 29 fig. 6.

St Abbs Head (from Laskey); Erroneous is Lusitanian or Mediterranean

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Not in WoRMS. Synonymy from Jeffreys (1863).

substriata Ligula Montagu, 1808.

Montacuta substriata (Montagu, 1808) [Galeommatoidea, Montacutidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 25, not figured.

Deep dredging off Devon coast.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

substriata Venus Montagu, 1808.

Lajonkairia substriata (Montagu, 1808) [Veneroidea, Petricolidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 48–49, Tab. 29 fig. 6.

Isle of May, Firth of Forth (Laskey); erroneous is West African.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

subtruncatus Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1767) [Truncatelloidea, Truncatellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 300, Tab. 10 fig 1.

Southampton; Salcombe.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

subulatus Murex Montagu, 1808.

Cerithiopsis subulata (Montagu, 1808) [Triphoroidea, Cerithiopsidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 115, Tab. 30 fig. 6.

Scalasdale, Sound of Mull (from Laskey); Erroneus is Caribbean.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Jeffreys (1867 p. 264) {C. subulatum (Murex subulatus Mont.) must be consigned to the same limbo. Laskey is reported to have found it at Scalasdale in the sound of Mull!}.

subumbilicatus Turbo Montagu, 1803.

Peringia ulvae (Pennant, 1777) [Truncatelloidea, Hydrobiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 316–317, not figured.

Weymouth from Bryer.

EXEMS Moll4454, seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.3) {“Turbo subumbilicatusHydrobia ulvae, Pennant, var. or male} but not found. Not in NHMUK.

sulcata Venus Montagu, 1803.

Astarte castanea (Say, 1822) [Crassatelloidea, Astartidae].

Montagu G 1803 Test. Brit. Part 1. p.131, not figured.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Not in WoRMS. Jeffreys (1863, p. 320) stated {A. castanea of Say, a North-American shell, has been called British without any sufficient reason. It is the Venus sulcata of Montagu, as well as of Maton and Rackett. Mr J. Sowerby gave a specimen as “English” to the former (Montagu)}.

tenebrosus Turbo Montagu 1803. (Fig. 79)

Littorina saxatilis (Poli, 1792) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2 p. 303–304, not figured.

EXEMS Moll4200, Paralectotype, 1 sh loose, card lacking blue layer. Register indicates 2 shells present. Label reads “in cabinet without name” identification by RSK Barnes.

EXEMS Moll4198, paralectotypes, 2 sh loose, Register indicates 4 shells were present.

NHMUK 1989177/1, Lectotype 1sh. NHMUK 1989177/2–15, Paralectotypes 14sh.

All type selections were made by Reid (1996).

tenuis Arca Montagu, 1808.

Ennucula tenuis (Montagu 1808) [Nuculoidea, Nuculidae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 56–57, Tab. 29 fig. 1.

Dunbar (from Laskey).

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

tenuis Mactra Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 80)

Abra tenuis (Montagu, 1803) [Tellinoidea, Semelidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 572, not figured.

Southampton, Weymouth (Bryer).

EXEMS Moll3730, Syntypes, 1lv. +1rv. on card.

tenuis Trochus Montagu, 1803.

Calliostoma granulatum Born, 1778) [Trochoidea, Calliostomatidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 275–277 Tab. 10 fig. 3.

Poole and Weymouth from Pulteney.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

terrestre Buccinum Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 81)

Cecilioides acicula (Müller, 1774) [Achatinoidea, Subulinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 248–250, Tab. 8 fig. 3.

Faversham Creek; Barham Downs; Lackham in Wiltshire.

EXEMS Moll4151, Syntypes, 2sh + 2 fragments on blue card.

tessellatus Turbo Montagu, MSS. (Fig. 82)

Littorina sp. [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

This taxon cannot be traced and may have been one of a number of unpublished names intended by Montagu before his untimely death.

NHMUK 1998033, 1sh.

Figures 78–82. 

78. Mya suborbicularis Montagu, 1803 [Kellia suborbicularis (Montagu, 1803)] 78.1 “Rowley” box containing 11sh., all syntypes EXEMS Moll3908-17. 78.2 Exterior and interior of right valve and interior of left valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3908. 79. Turbo tenebrosus Montagu, 1803 [Littorina saxatilis (Poli, 1792)] 79.1 Old NHMUK labels indicating provenance of Montagu Coll. 79.2 Apertural and abapertural views of lectotype NHMUK 1989177/1. 79.3 Old label and register entry for lots EXEMS Moll4198 and 4200. 79.4 Apertural views of paralectotypes EXEMS Moll4198/1 and EXEMS Moll4200/1. 80. Mactra tenuis Montagu, 1803 [Abra tenuis (Montagu, 1803)] 80.1 “Rowley” box containing a Montagu card. 80.2 Interior of left (broken) and right valves. 80.3 Exterior of left valve (broken). 81. Buccinum terrestre Montagu, 1803 [Ceciliodes acicula (Müller, 1774)] 81.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 2sh. and 2 fragments, syntypes EXEMS Moll4151. 81.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4151a. 81.3 SEM of apertural view of syntype EXEMS Moll4151a. 82. Turbo tessellatus Montagu, MSS [Littorina sp.] 82.1 Old NHMUK mounting block with 1sh. attached. 82.2 Abapertural and apertural views of unique shell NHMUK 1998033.

trachea Dentalium Montagu, 1803.

Caecum trachea (Montagu, 1803) [Truncatelloidea, Caecidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 497, Tab. 14 fig. 10.

Milton Sands, Devonshire.

Not in RAMM, not in NHMUK.

triangularis Mactra Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 83)

Goodallia triangularis (Montagu, 1803) [Crassatelloidea, Astartidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 99, Tab. 3 fig. 5.

Falmouth Harbour; Devon.

EXEMS Moll3858a, Syntype, 1v. with octagonal card with 2 scars.

EXEMS Moll3853–3857, 9v. with Moll3858 are Astarte montagui.

triangularis Venus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 84)

Gouldia minima (Montagu, 1803) [Veneroida, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 577, not figured.

EXEMS Moll3848, Syntypes, 2v. loose.

NHMUK 1998077, Syntypes, 3v.

trochiformis Helix Montagu, 1803.

Euconulus fulvus (Muller, 1774) [Gastrodontoidea, Euconulidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 427–428 Tab. 11 fig. 9.

By R. Avon; Lackham in Wiltshire.

EXEMS Moll4313 & EXEMS Moll4493 not found. Not in NHMUK.

truncata Mactra Montagu, 1808. (Fig. 85)

Spisula solida (Linnaeus, 1758) [Mactroidea, Mactridae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 34, not figured.

Firth of Forth.

EXEMS Moll3776–77, 2 complete shells seen by Brind (1979) and regarded as types.

EXEMS Moll3776 Syntype 1sh., (38.0mm) is S. solida and agrees with original description and fits with cited figure in Donovan, 1803, pl. 126.

EXEMS Moll3777, 1sh., (17.6mm) is S. subtruncata and does not fit original description of M. truncata.

truncatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 86)

Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1767) [Truncatelloidea, Truncatellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 300–301 Tab. 10 fig. 7.

Southapton; Plymouth; Weymouth.

EXEMS Moll4225, Syntypes 3 sh. on blue card with 2 scars.

tubercularis Murex Montagu 1803. (Fig. 87)

Cerithiopsis tubercularis (Montagu, 1803) [Triphoroidea, Cerithiopsidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 270–271, not figured.

Mouth of the Aun (Avon) in Devonshire; Sandwich (from Boys).

EXEMS Moll4235, 1sh. in capsule + 1sh on card, seen by Dean (1936) and Brind (1979).

EXEMS Moll4235/, Lectotype (white shell in capsule) 1, and EXEMS Moll4235/2, Paralectotype, selected by Marshall (1978).

Proposed setting aside of above lectotype. Cecalupo and Robba (2011).

Above proposal supported. Giannuzzi-Savelli and Pusateri (2011)

Above proposal not supported. Prkic et al. (2012).

Setting aside of lectotype supported but not selection of a neotype. Bouchet and Marshall (2012).

Selection of neotype not supported. Modica et al. (2013)

Figures 83–87. 

83 Mactra triangularis Montagu, 1803 [Goodallia triangularis (Montagu, 1803)] 83.1 Extract from register indicating lot 3858a. 83.2 Wooden plinth with Montagu hexagonal blue card and 1v. EXEMS Moll3858. 83.3 Interior and exterior of unique left valve, syntype EXEMS Moll3858a. 84. Venus triangularis Montagu, 1803 [Gouldia minima (Montagu, 1803)] 84.1 Exterior and interior of left valve EXEMS Moll3848a. 84.2 Exterior of smaller left valve EXEMS Moll3848b. 85. Mactra truncata Montagu, 1808 [Spisula solida (Linnaeus, 1758)] 85.1 Exterior and interior of syntype EXEMS Moll3776. 85.2 Hinge of left valve EXEMS Moll3776. 85.3 Interior and exterior of shell EXEMS Moll3777, is Spisula subtruncata. 85.4 Hinge of left valve of shell EXEMS Moll3777. 86. Turbo truncatus Montagu, 1803 [Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1767)] 86.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 3sh. attached, syntypes EXEMS Moll4225a-c. 86.2 Abapertural and apertural (SEM) views of syntype EXEMS Moll4225a. 87. Murex tubercularis Montagu, 1803 [Cerithiopsis tubercularis (Montagu, 1803)] 87.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with original label and 2sh. attached. EXEMS Moll4235. 87.2 Abapertural and apertural (SEM) views of lectotype EXEMS Moll4253/1. 87.3 Abapertural and apertural views of paralectotype EXEMS Moll4253/2.

tumidus Trochus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 88)

Gibbula tumida (Montagu, 1803) [Trochoidea, Trochidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 280–281, Tab. 10 fig. 4.

Salcombe Bay, Torcross, Wales, Weymouth (from Bryer).

EXEMS Moll4175, Syntypes, 3 sh. loose, once on card.

EXEMS Moll4176, Syntypes, 6sh. in capsule.

turboformis Strombus Montagu, 1808.

Cerithideopsis costatus (da Costa, 1778) [Cerithioidea, Potamididae].

Montagu G 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 110–111, Tab. 30 fig. 7.

Nuns Island, Iona, Scotland; Erroneus is West Indian.

Not in RAMM or NHMUK.

Jeffreys, 1867, p.264 stated {C. costatum (Strombiformis costatus, Da Costa = Strombus turboformis, Montagu) should also be rejected as exotic; it is a common West-Indian shell}.

turricula Murex Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 89)

Propebela turricula (Montagu, 1803) [Conoidea, Mangeliidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 262–263, Tab. 9 fig. 1.

Sandwich from Boys; Biddeford Bay in Devon; Laugharne and Tenby in Wales.

EXEMS Moll4250, Syntypes 3sh. on blue card, 1 empty scar + 3sh. loose. Borrowed by Jon Arne Sneli but no designations published.

NHMUK 1998040, Syntypes 10sh.

umbilicata Bulla Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 99)

Retusa umbilicata (Montagu, 1803) [Bulloidea, Retusidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 222–223, Tab. 7 fig. 4.

Falmouth Harbour.

NHMUK1998038, Syntypes, 2sh.

See ICZN Opinion 549 for retention of Montagu’s name over that of Röding (1798).

umbilicata Helix Montagu, 1803.

Pyramidula pusilla (Vallot, 1801) [Pupilloidea, Pyramidulidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 434–435 Tab. 13 fig. 2.

Tenby.

EXEMS Moll4147 and EXEMS Moll4475 not found. Not in NHMUK.

umbilicatus Trochus Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 90)

Gibbula umbilicalis (da Costa, 1778) [Trochoidea, Trochidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 286–287, not figured.

No precise localities given.

EXEMS Moll4178, Syntypes, 12 sh.

unicus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 91)

Graphis albida (Kanmacher, 1798) [Mathildoidea, Tofanellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 299–300, Tab. 12 fig. 2.

None given.

EXEMS Moll4232, Syntypes, 2 sh. on octagonal blue card, 1 empty scar.

unidentatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 92)

Odostomia unidentata (Montagu, 1803) [Pyramidelloidea, Pyramidellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 324–325, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4238, Syntype, 1sh. on blue card, 1 empty scar.

Figures 88–92. 

88. Trochus tumidus Montagu, 1803 [Gibbula tumida (Montagu, 1803)] 88.1 “Rowley” box with 9sh. in 2 lots EXEMS Moll4175-6. 88.2 Abapertural, basal and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4175a. 88.3 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4176a. 89. Murex turricula Montagu, 1803 [Propebela turricula (Montagu, 1803)] 89.1 “Rowley” box containing a Montagu card with 3 sh. and 3sh. loose. 89.2 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 3 syntypes and original label. 89.3 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4250a. 90. Trochus umbilicatus Montagu, 1803 [Gibbula umbilicalis (da Costa, 1778)] 90.1 “Rowley” box label for lot 4178. 90.2 Syntype series of 12 sh. EXEMS Moll4178. 90.3 Apical, lateral and basal views of largest syntype EXEMS Moll4178a. 91. Turbo unicus Montagu, 1803 [Graphis albida (Kanmacher, 1798)] 91.1 Montagu hexagonal black card with 2sh. and 1 empty scar. 91.2 Apertural and abapertural (SEM) views of syntype EXEMS Moll4232a. 92. Turbo unidentatus Montagu, 1803 [Odostomia unidentata (Montagu, 1803)] 92.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 1sh. and 1 empty scar. 92.2 Abapertural and apertural views of unique syntype EXEMS Moll4238.

unifasciatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 93)

Barleeia unifasciata (Montagu, 1803) [Rissooidea, Barleeidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 327–328, not figured.

Southampton, Burrow in Devon.

EXEMS Moll4272, 4sh on blue card + 3 empty scars, seen by Jeffreys (1879) and regarded as syntypes by Dean (1936) and Brind (1979).

These shells do not conform to the current concept of B. unifasciata but are Cingula trifasciata J. Adams, 1800. Montagu, himself, likened his T. unifasciatus to T. trifasciatus but Forbes and Hanley (1851) and Jeffreys (1867) both place T. unifasciatus under T. ruber and T. trifasciatus under T. cingillus and this appears to be the basis of current nomenclature. However if these shells truly represent the concept of Montagu’s unifasciatus then the nomenclature of Barleeia must change. The priority given to Turbo ruber von Salis, 1793 while correct in nomenclature gives priority to a taxon of uncertain identity whereas Turbo ruber of Adams and Montagu is well defined and has a long history of use.

ventrosus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 94)

Ecrobia ventrosa (Montagu, 1803) [Truncatelloidea, Hydrobiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 317–318, Tab. 12 fig. 13.

Folkestone; Sandwich.

NHMUK 1978072 Lectotype, 1sh and NHMUK 1978073, Paralectotypes 10sh. selected by Bank et al. (1979). The lectotype is broken and there are 10 not 12 paralectotypes.

vinctus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 95)

Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 307–308, not figured.

Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4187, Syntypes, 2sh. on blue card + 1 broken.

viridis Laplysia Montagu, 1804.

Elysia viridis (Montagu, 1804) [Plakobranchoidea, Plakobranchidae].

Montagu, 1804. Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 7. p. 76–78, Tab. 7 fig. 1.

Coast of Devon.

No record of any non-shelled species being deposited.

vitreus Turbo Montagu, 1803. (Fig. 96)

Hyala vitrea (Montagu, 1803) [Truncatelloidea, Iravadiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 321–322, Tab. 12 fig. 3.

Whitsand Bay in Cornwall.

EXEMS Moll4211, Syntypes, 4 sh. + 1 fragment.

NHMUK 1998036, Syntypes, 2sh.

voluta Cypraea Montagu 1803. (Fig. 97)

Erato voluta (Montagu, 1803) [Velutinoidea, Triviidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 203–204, Tab. 6 fig. 7, 7.

Salcombe.

EXEMS Moll4249, Syntypes 3sh. from card, 8 sh. loose.

Examined by Crawford Cate but no designations were published

zetlandicus Turbo Montagu 1816. (Fig. 98)

Alvania zetlandica (Montagu, 1816) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1816 Trans. Linn. Soc. Lond. 11, p. 194–195, Tab. 13 fig. 3.

Shetland.

EXEMS Moll4215, Syntypes 3 sh. on blue card.

Figures 93–98. 

93. Turbo unifasciatus Montagu, 1803 [Barleeia unifasciata (Montagu, 1803)] 93.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 4 sh. and 3 empty scars. 93.2 Apertural and abapertural view of EXEMS Moll4272a. These shells are all Cingula trifasciata J.Adams. 94. Turbo ventrosus Montagu, 1803 [Ecrobia ventrosa (Montagu, 1803)] 93.1 Label on base of NHMUK box indicating provenance. 93.2 Apertural and abapertural views of lectotype NHMUK 197872. 93.3 Apertural (SEM) and abapertural views of paralectotype NHMUK 197873/1. 95. Turbo vinctus Montagu, 1803 [Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803)] 95.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 3sh. and original label EXEMS Moll4187. 95.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll 4187a. 96. Turbo vitreus Montagu, 1803 [Hyala vitrea (Montagu, 1803)] 96.1 Montagu hexagonal black card with 4sh. + 1 fragment attached, all syntypes EXEMS Moll4211a-e. 96.2 Abapertural and apertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4215a. 97. Cypraea voluta Montagu, 1803 [Erato voluta (Montagu, 1803)] 97.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 3sh. and original label, syntypes EXEMS Moll4249a-c. 97.2 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4249a. 98. Turbo zetlandicus Montagu, 1816 [Alvania zetlandica (Montagu, 1816)] 98.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card with 3 sh. and original label, syntypes EXEMS Moll4215a-c. 98.2 Apertural (SEM) and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4215a

Figure 99. 

Bulla umbilicata Montagu, 1803 [Retusa umbilicata (Montagu, 1803)] 99.1/2 Top and bottom of box indicating type status but no original labels 99.3 Apertural view of larger syntype NHMUK1998038/1. 99.4 Abapertural view of smaller syntype NHMUK1998038/2.

Acknowledgements

This project was largely funded by the John Ellerman Foundation, with one grant to the Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery under the title “HMS Challenger Project” and a second grant to the National Museum of Wales under the title “Great British Mollusca Types: A Union Database for the United Kingdom”.

Sincerest thanks are due to many who helped PG Oliver to resolve historic and taxonomic problems. Geoff Hancock; Fred Woodward; Ron Cleevely; Peter S Dance and Sankurie Pye for their help with biographical and historic issues. Ruud Bank; Bram Breure; Rudo von Cosel; Phil Fallon; Serge Gofas; Dietrich Kadolsky; Harry Lee; Marco Oliveiro; David Reid; Javier Signorelli; Ian Smith and Ron Voskuil for their help with taxonomic issues.

This catalogue is dedicated to Ron Cleevely who died recently after a short illness. Ron was very generous with his information on Montagu and his associates. He had a long interest in Montagu and Eliza D’Orville and was still researching them just before his illness.

It is sad to report that those with a knowledge of historic conchology are diminising in numbers and that curatorial expertise throughout the museum sector is threatening the value and access of many collections.

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