Research Article
Research Article
Redescription and reassignment of Ondina semicingulata to the Pyramidellidae, with review of the occurrence of genus Evalea in the Western Atlantic (Gastropoda)
expand article infoAlexandre D. Pimenta, Franklin N. Santos§, Carlo M. Cunha|
‡ Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
§ Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, São Mateus, Brazil
| Universidade Metropolitana de Santos, Santos, Brazil
Open Access


Acteon semicingulatus Dall, 1927, previously known only by its original description is reassigned to the Pyramidellidae, in Ondina, based on the collecting of several new specimens along the coast of Brazil, in the same bathymetry as the type locality. Its shell shape variation is discussed and Odostomia (Evalea) ryclea Dall, 1927 is considered a synonymy. Other Western Atlantic species, previously allocated to other genera are transferred to Ondina: Aclis striata Verrill, 1880, Odostomia (Iolaea) hendersoni Bartsch, 1909, Evalea stocki De Jong & Coomans, 1988 and Odostomia (Evalea) emeryi Bartsch, 1955 based on conchlogical comparison to the revison by Høisæter (2014), from Northeastern Atlantic. The genus Evalea is considered to be absent in the Atlantic Ocean.

Key Words

Heterobranchia , Pyramidelloidea , Taxonomy, Nomenclature, Biodiversity, Southwestern Atlantic


The Pyramidellidae Gray, 1840 is a notoriously rich and taxonomically complex gastropod family. It was included in the “big-five” group of the richest mollusks families by Albano et al. (2002) after extensive surveys in New Caledonia. It includes about 3,000 accepted names at the species level which are classified in around 140 accepted genera (MolluscaBase 2018).

Although recent advances and changes in the phylogenetic position of the family within Heterobranchia have been proposed (e.g. Dinapoli and Klussmann-Kolb 2010), the alpha taxonomy of several genera remains to be revised and knowledge of diversity and distribution of species is still far from satisfactory. Taxonomic studies in regions where the Pyramidellidae was poorly studied, generally reveal several new species (e.g. Peñas and Rolán 2010, in the South Pacific region). Knowledge of Pyramidellidae diversity in Brazil grew considerably after several taxonomic works (e.g. Pimenta and Absalão 2001a, b, 2002, 2004a, 2004b, Pimenta et al. 2000, 2008, 2009, 2011, Pimenta 2012), but several genera remain to be revised. Additionally, old published names should be revised in both nomenclature and taxonomy.

This is the case of Ondina de Folin, 1870, a genus with 20 valid species (MolluscaBase 2018), mainly from European and west African waters but so far not recorded in the Tropical western Atlantic. The nomenclature of Ondina was revised by van Aartsen (1984) and the Eastern Atlantic species (from Europe and Africa) were re-described in a series of papers (e.g. van Aartsen 1987, van Aartsen et al. 1996, Peñas et al. 1996, Peñas and Rolán 1999, Warén 1991, Høisæter 2014).

During a visit to the USNM collection, the type series of Acteon semicingulatus was examined, which led to its reassessment in the Pyramidellidae, genus Ondina, as well as in the review of the previous records of the Pyramidellidae genera Ondina and Evalea in the Western Atlantic.

Material and methods

Taxonomic identification of the new material from Brazil was based on conchological comparison with type specimens and with the recent revision by Høisæter (2014). All available material consists of dry shells; in the “Examined material” the number of shells is indicated between brackets.

For detailed examination, shells were prepared following the standard methods to preparation of micromollusc shells for SEM of Geiger et al. (2007) and observed by scanning electron microscopy at the Centro de Microscopia Eletrônica, Departamento de Invertebrados, Museu Nacional/UFRJ, with a JEOL JSM-6390LV microscope.

Measurements were made with the software ImageJ (Rasband 2012).

Institutional Acronyms: ANSP, Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, USA; MNRJ, Museu Nacional / Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil; USNM, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C., USA; YPM, Yale Peabody Museum–Invertebrate Zoology/Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut, USA; USFC, United States Fish Commission, formally known as the United States Commission of Fish and Fisheries. Shell measurements: H, shell height parallel to coiling axis; D, greatest shell width perpendicular to H; h, aperture height (maximum length parallel to coiling axis); d, greatest width of aperture (maximum width perpendicular to coiling axis).

Due to the fire in the Museu Nacional, in September 2018, the non type material of Ondina semicingulata was destroyied.


Family Pyramidellidae Gray, 1840

Subfamily Odostomiinae Pelseneer, 1928

Ondina de Folin, 1870

Ondina de Folin, 1870: 200.

Type species

Ondina semiornata de Folin, 1872 [= Ondina warrenii (Thompson, 1845)] by subsequent designation (van Aartsen 1984: 134). Atlantic coast of France.

Ondina semicingulata (Dall, 1927), comb. n.

Figures 1a–n, 2a–c

Acteon semicingulatus : Dall 1927: 19–20; Poirier 1954: 102; Marcus 1974: 319; Abbott 1974: 311.

Odostomia (Evalea) ryclea : Dall 1927: 85. New synonym.

Type material

Ondina semicingulata – Syntypes: USNM 107913 [5 shells], from type locality; Odostomia (Evalea) ryclea – Holotype: USNM 108365, R/V Albatross, sta. 2415, off Georgia (30°44’N 79°26’W, 805.2 m depth) depth, on broken coral, coarse sand and broken shell bottom).

Type locality

R/V Albatross, sta. 2668, off Fernandina, Florida [Cumberland Island, off Georgia], (30°58’30”N, 79°38’30”W, 538 m depth).

Material examined

The syntypes and: Off Barbados: 183 m depth, USNM 87264, [1], Blake Expedition; Upper Pliocene (Lower Pinecrest) of Sarasota Co., Florida, USA: Harry Lee Private Collection [1]; Brazil: Amapá state: off Cape Orange, (4°27’54.0”N, 49°58’05.0”W, 160 m depth), MNRJ 26217, [2], R/V Sartro 25 coll., 13/x/2000; off Maracá Island, (2°21’00.0”N, 48°29’54.0”W, 72 m depth), MNRJ 27809, [2], R/V Columbus Iselin coll., 22/x/1991; Ceará state: off Camocim, (2.089S, 41.084W, 390 m depth): MNRJ 27823, [9]; MNRJ 27830, [1], R/V Natureza coll., 30/x/2001; Rio Grande do Norte state: off Touros, (4.861S, 35.134W, 384 m depth), MNRJ 27821, [7], R/V Natureza coll., 24/xi/2001; off Sibaúma, (6.234S, 34.876W, 510 m depth), MNRJ 27834, [2], R/V Natureza coll., 26/x/2001; Bahia state: off Itacaraé, (14.482S, 38.901W, 278 m depth), MNRJ 28264, [1], R/V Natureza coll., 02/vii/2001; off Salvador, (13.238S, 38.578W, 316 m depth), MNRJ 26258, [1], R/V Astro Garoupa, 25/vi/2002; Santa Catarina state: off Itajaí, (26°38’44.9”S, 46°51’54.2”W, 150 m depth), MNRJ 15318, [3], ii/2004.


Shell small, thin, up to 3.2 mm, width ~50% of length; oblong ovate to biconical; color translucent white; spire regularly conical, ~30° angled, ~40% of shell length. Protoconch heterostrophic, helicoidal, with about one smooth whorl, intorted, oriented ~180° to teleoconch axis, immersed into first teleoconch whorl, with no visible nucleus; width about 210 μm; transition with teleoconch weak, hardly discernible. Teleoconch up to four stepped whorls, each whorl slightly convex, last whorl somewhat globose; suture deep, forming a narrow furrow. Axial sculptured absent, except for growth lines; spiral sculpture with very narrow spiral grooves of variable distribution and number; usually restricted to the periphery, near the area of implantation of the outer lip, extending anteriorly up to about 1/3 of last whorl and on the base; young shells with three-four very thin furrows; some adult shells with up to 20 furrows covering all base surface and extending anteriorly on last whorl more than half of its length, but not reaching anterior suture; adult shells with visible furrows just above suture; spiral furrows covered by microscopic axial threads. Aperture elliptical-oblong, length about half of last whorl length, anteriorly elongated-rounded, posteriorly narrow and somewhat acute. Columellar margin slightly concave, without tooth. Outer lip thick. Umbilicus deep and wide, ranging from circular to wide chink.

Geographic distribution

USA: Florida (type locality); Barbados (present study); Brazil: Amapá, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Bahia and Santa Catarina states (present study).


Except for the features of soft parts, absent in the type specimens of Acteon semicingulatus, all characteristics agree with the diagnose provided by Høisæter (2014) for Ondina, including the oblong-ovate shell, oblong aperture and intorted protoconch. In comparison to the Eastern Atlantic species, which usually have more elongate shells, O. semicingulata has a wider shell, with biconical general shape. The original allocation in Acteon is rejected since Acteonids have a solid shell, with columellar tooth and rounded protoconch (Valdés 2008).

Høisæter (2014) discussed the high variability of the surface of the shell, being smooth or with variable incised spirals. According to this author, in a single species, the spirals may cover uniformly the whole shell, they may be confined to the lower half of each teleoconch whorl or the shell may be smooth and shiny.

Ondina semicingulata (Figures 1a–n, 2a–c) is strongly sculptured with spiral furrows (Figure 1i) restricted to the anterior 1/3 to half of the whorls. On earlier whorls, these lines are visible only above suture (Figure 1e–g), but on the last whorl, they are visible also below the periphery of whorl (Figure 1e), extending to the base (Figure 1g). The amount of lines on the last whorl (including the base) is variable, both ontogenetically and between shells with the same number of whorls.

Figure 1j–n illustrates shells of O. semicingulata in a growth series. The amount of spiral lines and strength of the spiral sculpture increase from shells of younger specimens (Fig. 1j–k) to adult ones (Fig. 1l–n). Besides these three adult specimens, with same number of whorls, exhibit variation in the sculpture, covering almost entire last whorl of the shell in Figure 1m.

Odostomia (Evalea) ryclea with type locality off Goergia is here considered a synonymy name of Ondina semicingulata, since it has identical shell shape and protoconch. Despite the eroded shell surface of the holotype (Figure 2a–c), the original description (Dall 1927) states the presence of spiral lines in the teleoconch whorls.

Figure 1. 

Shells of Ondina semicingulata. A. Syntype (USNM 107913), in apertural view; B. same in lateral view; C. same in ventral view; D. same, detail of protoconch in apical view. E. From Rio Grande do Norte state (MNRJ 27821), in apertural view; F. same, lateral view; G. same, adapertural view; H. same, detail of protoconch in apical view; I. same, detail of sculpture. J. From Brazil, Amapá state (MNRJ 27809), shell #1 in apertural view; K. same, shell #2 in ventral view. L. From Brazil, Bahia state, MNRJ 28264, in apertural view. M. From Brazil, Amapá state (MNRJ 26217), in ventral view. N. From Brazil, Rio Grande do Norte state (MNRJ 27834), in apertural view. Scale bars: whole shells (vertical bar): 1 mm; details (horizontal bar): 200 µm.

Ondina striata (Verrill, 1880), comb. n.

Figure 2d–h

Aclis striata : Verrill 1880: 377; 1882: 528, pl. 58, fig. 13; Johnson 1989: 66, pl. 11, fig. 7.

Odostomia (Menestho) striata : Bartsch 1911: 435.

Type material

Lectotype (designated by Johnson 1989: 66): YPM 15757, missing; paralecotype: USNM 44820, USFC sta. 873, 183 m depth, off Newport, Rhode Island.

Type locality

Bay of Fundy, near Eastport, Maine, Verrill coll. 1868.

Material examined

Photographs of the paralectotype and of: USFC sta. 863, 33 m, Vineyard Sound, Rhode Island: YPM 15704 [1]; ANSP 102517 [1].

Geographic distribution

USA: Rhode Island (type locality), Maine.


Aclis striata was described (Verrill 1880) based on two shells: from shallow water in the Bay of Fundy; and from deep-water off Newport, Rhode Island, by the USFC. Two years later, Verrill (1882) referred to the same two shells, adding station number information (USFC sta. 873) to the the deep-water shell. In this work, Verrill (1882: pl. 58, fig. 13) presented the drawing of a shell without indicating which one of the two syntypes.

The type material of Aclis striata was studied by Johnson (1989: 66, pl. 11, fig. 7), who designated and figured the lectotype (YPM 15757, from the Bay of Fundy), and listed YPM 15704, from USFC sta. 873, as a paralectotype (but see comments below about its type status). After searching the YPM Molluscan Collection (E. Lazo-Wasen pers. comm.), it was noticed that the lectotype was missing (the vial was empty) and the label of the supposed paralectotype YPM 15704 (Figure 2h) mentions ‘USFC sta. 863’ (which is a shallow water station in the Vineyards Sounds, 33 m depth).

According to Johnson (1989: 15), Verrill sent the samples (types and other specimens) of the species described by himself to the National Museum of Natural History (USNM), keeping nevertheless, some duplicate specimens with him, which he later sold to YPM (Lazo-Wasen pers. comm.). Thus, it seems that the two original syntypes of Aclis striata were split by Verrill between the USNM and the YPM collections.

This is corroborated by the original label of USNM 44820 (Figure 2g) that states: “Aclis striata V. Off Newport, R. I. U.S.F.C. 1880”. This label has a hand-written indication of “figd. type” that corresponds to Verrill´s calligraphy (E. Lazo-Wasen pers. comm.); such “figd. type” (Figure 2d–e) matches perfectly the figured syntype by Verrill (1882: pl. 58, fig. 13), and thus, it must be considered the paralectotype from deep-water (USFC sta. 873), while the missing lectotype (figure in Johnson 1989: pl. 11, fig. 7), by the other hand, is a smaller shell.

Thus, the shell YPM 15704 (Figure 2h), considered by Johnson to be a paralectotype has no type status. As indicated by its label, it was dredged by USFC is sta. 863, in which an additional shell (ANSP 102517) was also collected.

The only remaining question is the reference to USFC sta. 863 in the original label of specimen USNM 44820 (Figure 2g). We believe that such information was mistakenly inserted by someone later since it has a different handwriting and Verrill (1880, 1882) did not list material from that station.

Ondina striata was originally described as belonging to Aclis due to its spiral striae and was later transferred to the Pyramidellidae genus Odostomia (Menestho) by Bartsch (1911: 435) without any comments on this taxonomic rearrangement. The species has all features that characterize the genus Ondina (Høisæter 2014) and is very similar to the type species of the genus.

Figure 2. 

A. Shell of Odostomia (Evalea) ryclea, holotype (USNM 108365) in ventral view; B. same, in adapertural view; C. same, detail of protoconch in apical view. D. Shell of Ondina striata, paralectotype (USNM 44820), in apertural view; E. same, in adapertural view; F. same, detail of protoconch in apical view. G. Original label of USNM 44820, showing a hand-written indication of “figd. type” by A. E. Verrill.; H. Ondina striata, a non-type shell (YPM 15704) erroneously indicated as lectotype by Johnson (1989). Scale bars: whole shells (vertical bar): 1 mm; detail (horizontal bar): 200 µm.

Ondina hendersoni (Bartsch, 1909), comb. n.

Figure 3a, b

Odostomia (Iolaea) hendersoni : Bartsch 1909: 101, pl. 13, fig. 43.

Type material

Holotype: USNM 203813.

Type locality

Woods Hole, Massachusetts.

Material examined

Photographs of the holotype.

Geographic distribution

USA: Massachusetts (type locality).


The holotype of Ondina hendersoni (Figure 3a, b) matches the general features of the genus Ondina, being however, larger with more globose whorls. The typical spiral lines of the genus are very numerous in the figured holotype and especially evident on the lower half of the teleoconch whorls.

This species was recorded from Texas by Odé (1994) as Amoura cf. hendersoni but the drawing of the shell (Odé 1994: 48, fig. 4) exhibits a slender shell, with few spiral lines above suture, which resembles O. stocki (see below).

Figure 3. 

A. Shell of Ondina hendersoni, holotype (USNM 203813) in apertural view; B. same, in lateral view. C. Shell of Ondina stocki, holotype (ZMA.MOLL. 138319) in apertural view [photo: Naturalis, Jeroen Goud. D. Ondina stocki, paratype (ZMA.MOLL. 138320), smaller shell in apertural view; E. same, bigger shell in apertural view. Scale bar: 1 mm.

Ondina stocki (De Jong & Coomans, 1988), comb. n.

Figure 3c–e

Evalea stocki : De Jong and Coomans 1988: 124, pl. 6, fig. 655.

?Amoura hendersoni auct. non Bartsch 1909: Gundersen (1998: 13, figured).

?Amoura cf. hendersoni auct. non Bartsch 1909: Odé (1994: 39, fig. 4).

Type material

Holotype: ZMA.MOLL. 138319 [original publication indicates ZMA 3.87.105]; two paratypes: ZMA.MOLL. 138320.

Type locality

Curaçao/Aruba [according to Jong and Coomans (1988: 124), the holotype was selected from mixed material from those two localities].

Material examined

Photographs of the types.

Geographic distribution

Curaçao/Aruba (type locality).


Ondina stocki (Figure 3c–e) was originally described in Evalea, based on a sample of shells from Aruba/Curaçao; the original illustration is a simple drawning that precludes a precise generic allocation, but the photographs of the holotype (Figure 3c) and of a young and an adult paratypes (Figure 3d–e) clearly shows that this species belong in the genus Ondina. The shell shape is similar to Ondina hendersoni, but the shell is narrower, and the spiral grooves are less numerous.

Lee (2009) recorded Evalea stocki from Jacksonville Beach, Florida, (USA) based on a young specimen. The author, in the same work, referred to a color illustration of that species, published by Gundersen (1998), but named by Gundersen (1998) as Amoura hendersoni. The figured shells from Sanibel Island in Gundersen (1998) and that from Jacksonville in Lee (2009) clearly can be ascribed to the genus Ondina, but the images provided by the authors as well as the drawing of Amoura cf. hendersoni by Odé (1994), do not allow a precise separation between O. stocki or O. hendersoni. Also, the simple drawing of Amoura cf. hendersoni from Texas in Odé (1994) does not allow a conclusive identification, in spite of the pattern of spiral grooves resembling that found in O. stocki.

Therefore, we consider that the only confirmed occurrence of O. stocki is that restricted to the type locality area.

Ondina emeryi (Bartsch, 1955), comb. n.

Odostomia (Evalea) emeryi Bartsch, 1955: 84, pl. 17, fig. 1.

Evalea emeryi : Odé and Speers (1972: 11, figs 13–14); Tunnel Jr. et al. (2010: 364, figured); Rosenberg et al. (2009: 672).

Amoura emeryi : Odé (1994: 40, fig. 5).

Type material

Holotype: USNM 561672 (Bartsch 1955: pl. 17, fig. 1); paratype: ANSP IP 31335. All from type locality.

Type locality

Pliocene of North St. Petersburg, Florida (type locality); Texas (Odé and Speers (1972), Odé (1994), Tunnel Jr. et al. (2010), Rosenberg et al. (2009).


This species was originally described from the Pliocene of Florida and later recorded from the Gulf of Mexico by Odé and Speers (1972), Odé (1994), Tunnel Jr. et al. (2010) and Rosenberg et al. (2009).

Geographic distribution

USA: Pliocene of Florida (type locality);


Knowledge of species richness, geographic distribution and accurate taxonomic status of marine molluscan fauna from Brazil is still far from satisfactory. Traditionally, the marine molluscan diversity was compiled in catalogues (e.g. Rios 1994, 2009), with the main purpose of working as identification guides, with a brief description of each taxa, and an image. Despite the recent contributions to the Brazilian molluscan diversity (e.g. Pimenta et al. 2004a), several taxa remain poorly known, and the revision of genera usually gives rise to the discover of new records and/or new species (e.g. Fernandes and Pimenta 2011). This is especially true to the marine micromollusks, as discussed by Pimenta and Geiger (2015).

In the last two decades, the Pyramidellidae species richness from Brazil raised from 35 previously recorded species (Rios 1994) to 94 species, including several new species, after the works by Pimenta (2012), Pimenta and Absalão (2001, 2002, 2004a, 2004b), Pimenta et al. (2008, 2009, 2011). Nevertheless, there is still many species of this family to be described, especially from deep-water (Pimenta pers. obs.).

On the other hand, acteonids also lack dedicated studies in the Western Atlantic, where few works have been published (Rehder 1939, Marcus 1972, 1974, Cunha 2011, Zelaya et al. 2011). Interestingly, recent studies have revealed new genera (Bouchet 1975, Salvador and Cunha 2016) and species (Smriglio and Mariottini 1996, Valdés 2008, Cunha and Simone 2018) from around the world.

For both families, re-examination of type material is imperative and in the case of Acteon semicingulatus, its reassignment to the Pyramidellidae revealed the first record of the genus Ondina in the Western Atlantic.

On the occurrence of Ondina in the Western Atlantic

The most complete and recent account on the taxonomy of Ondina was provided by van Aartsen (1987), Waren (1991) and Høisæter (2014), based on European species. Høisæter (2014) figured the type species Ondina semiornata de Folin, 1870 (= Ondina warrenii) and discussed the intraspecific variation found in the genus.

According to the works by van Aartsen (1987), van Aartsen et al. (1998), Peñas et al. (1996), Peñas and Rolán (1999), Warén (1991), and Høisæter (2014), Ondina is mainly distributed in the Eastern Atlantic, both in temperate and tropical latitudes, including the Northern European Seas, the Lusitanian, the Mediterranean Sea and West African Transition Provinces, while a single species is known from the temperate northern Pacific, in the coast of Japan (Hori and Fukuda 1999).

The present records of Ondina semicingulata, O. emeryi, O. stocki and O. hendersoni in the western Atlantic broadens the distribution of the genus including geographical areas that go from Georgia (north-western Atlantic) and south Brazil (south western Atlantic), which gives the genus a wider latitudinal range in the western Atlantic when compared to its distribution in the eastern part of the Atlantic. Ondina semicingulata, besides presenting a wider distribution in the western Atlantic, also presents a larger bathymetric range from 72–500 m depth. Ondina mosti van Aartsen, Gittenberger & Goud, 1998 is the only eastern Atlantic species with similar bathymetry (119–405 m), while the other species are restricted to littoral and continental shelf depths (Aartsen et al. 1998).

Evaluation of the occurrence of Evalea in the Western Atlantic

Aartsen (1987) evaluated the generic allocation of several European odostomids species previously included in Evalea and based on the absence of a well-developed columellar tooth, trasnferred them to Ondina. This criterion was followed by Høisæter (2014).

According to Aartsen and Menkhorst (1996: 51–52), Evalea was confused by Nordsieck (1972), most likely because of the lack of an illustration of the type species Odostomia (Evalea) elegans A. Adams, 1860. Aartsen and Menkhorst (1996: fig. 11) designated a neotype for the type species of Evalea which shows a shell with coarse spiral striae covering all whorls and a visible columellar tooth.

According to MolluscaBase (2018), Evalea has 18 species and it is not present in European waters (e.g. East Atlantic and Mediterranean), being restricted to the Pacific coast of Japan, New Zealand, Indian South Africa, and to the western Atlantic.

In the present work, an attempt was made to evaluate the presence of Evalea in the western Atlantic by checking the previous species recorded in that genus and comparing them to the type species as illustrated by Aartsen (1996). According MolluscaBase (2018), the following species are recorded from the western Atlantic: Evalea fernandina (Bartsch, 1927), E. ryclea (Bartsch, 1927), E. emeryi (Bartsch, 1955), and E. stocki De Jong & Coomans, 1988; besides that, Odé (1994) recorded an aditional taxon as “Evalea sp. indet. A”.

As demonstrated above, Evalea stocki, E. ryclea (= O. semicincgulata) and E. emeryi belong in fact to the genus Ondina. As for the other species we do not have at present enough evidence to critically discuss their generic placement.

Odostomia (Evalea) fernandina (Dall, 1927: 85) was originally described in Odostomia and it has an elongate shell with whorls with an almost rectilinear outline. Although the holotype, USNM 108053, (Figure 4a, b) is eroded and has a partially broken outer lip, it is possible to distinguish from Evalea by the absence of spiral sculpture and columellar tooth. However, it does not seem to belong to Ondina, because of the different protoconch which is not fully immersed. Thus, until further evidence is available we suggest this species to be kept in the genus Odostomia. The record of Evalea sp. A by Odé (1994: 46, fig. 8) is considered doubtful because in the drawing provided by the author, characters that could relate the specimen to Evalea such as the spiral sculpture throughout the shell and the presence of a columellar fold, are difficult to interpret.

Therefore, based on previous studies (e.g Høisæter 2014) and our own results it is here suggested that the genus Evalea is absent in the Atlantic Ocean.

Figure 4. 

A. Shell of Odostomia fernandina, holotype (USNM 108053) in apertural view; B. same, in adapertural view. Scale bar: 1 mm.


We thank Ellen E. Strong and Yolanda Villacampa (USNM) for the images of the type specimens and their kind help and hospitality while visiting the museum (CMC). José Carlos N. Barros (UFRPE), for donating some of the material examined from north/northeast Brazil; Harry Lee, for information and image of Ondina stocki from Florida; Bram van der Bijl and Jeroen Goud (ZMA / Naturalis, Leiden), for the photos and information about the types of O. stocki; E. Lazo-Wasen and Daniel Drew (YPM) for the photos of the type specimens in YPM and valuable discussions on the type status of Aclis striata; Ellen Wildner (ANSP), for photos of additional material; Leonardo Souza, for photos and notes about the type of O. striata when visiting the USNM. We also thank Anne DuPont (Florida, USA) for review and corrections of English grammar and spelling.

This project was partially supported by Capes Foundation proc. 8739/13-7 to C. M. Cunha.


  • Abbott RT (1974) American Seashells. The Marine Mollusca of the Atlantic and Pacific coasts of North America. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, New York.
  • Albano PG, Sabelli B, Bouchet P (2011) The challenge of small and rare species in marine biodiversity surveys: microgastropod diversity in a complex tropical coastal environment. Biodiversity and Conservation 20: 3223–3237.
  • Bartsch P (1909) Pyramidellidae of New England and the adjacent region. Proceedings of the Boston Society of Natural History 34(4): 67–113.
  • Bartsch P (1911) New mollusks of the genus Aclis from the North Atlantic. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 40(1829): 435–438. [pl. 59]
  • Bartsch P (1955) The pyramidellid mollusks of the Pliocene deposits of North St. Petersburg, Florida. Smithsonian miscellaneous collections 125(2): 1–102.
  • Bouchet P (1975) Opisthobranches de profondeur de l’Océan Atlantique: 1. Cephalaspidea = Deep-sea opisthobranches from the Atlantic Ocean: 1. Cephalaspidea. Cahiers de Biologie Marine 16(3): 317–365.
  • Cunha CM, Simone LRL (2018) A new species of the genus Rapturella (Gastropoda: Acteonidae) from southeast Brazil. Zootaxa. [in press]
  • Dall WH (1927) Small shells from dredgings off the southeast coast of the United States by the United States Fisheries Steamer ‘Albatross’ in 1885 and 1886. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 70(2667): 1–134.
  • Dinapoli A, Klussmann-Kolb A (2010) The long way to diversity – phylogeny and evolution of the Heterobranchia (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution 55: 60–76.
  • Geiger DL, Marshall BA, Ponder WF, Sasaki T, Warén A (2007) Techniques for collecting, handling, preparing, storing and examining small molluscan specimens. Molluscan Research 27(1): 1–50.
  • Gundersen R (1998) The seashells of Sanibel and Captiva Islands. Published privately, Racine, Wisconsin, 1–32.
  • Hori S, Fukuda H (1999) New species of the Pyramidellidae (Orthogastropoda: Heterobranchia) from the collections of the Yamaguchi Museum and the Hagi City Museum. Venus 58(4): 175–190.
  • Johnson RI (1989) Molluscan taxa of Addison Emery Verrill and Katharine Jeannette Bush, including those introduced by Sanderson Smith and Alpheus Hyatt Verrill. Occasional papers on mollusks 5(67): 1–144.
  • Jong KM de, Coomans HE (1988) Marine Gastropods from Curacao, Aruba and Bonaire. E. J. Brill, Leiden, 261 pp. [47 pls]
  • Lee HG (2009) Marine shells of Northeast Florida. Shell Club, Jacksonville, 204 pp. [19 pls]
  • Marcus E (1972) On some Acteonidae (Gastropoda, Opisthobranchia). Papéis Avulsos de Zoologia 25(19): 167–188.
  • Marcus E (1974) On some Cephalaspidea (Gastropoda: Opisthobranchia) from the Western and middle Atlantic warm waters. Bulletin of Marine Science 24(2): 300–371.
  • Nordsieck F (1972) Die Europäischen Meeresschnecken Opisthobranchia mit Pyramidellidae; Rissoacea. Gustav Fischer, Stuttgart, 327 pp.
  • Odé H, Speers AB (1972) Notes concerning Texas beach shells – Superfamily Pyramidellacea, Part II. The odostomiid genera and the genus Longchaeus. Texas conchologist 9(1): 11–17.
  • Odé H (1994) Distribution and records of the marine Mollusca in the Northwest Gulf of Mexico (A continuing monograph: Superfamily Pyramidelloidea, Family Pyramidellidae Part III). Texas conchologist 30(2): 38–50.
  • Peñas A, Templado J, Martínez JL (1996) Contribucíon al conocimiento de los Pyramidelloidea (Gastropoda: Heterostropha) del Mediterráneo español. Iberus 14: 1−82.
  • Peñas A, Rolán E (1999) La familia Pyramidellidae Gray, 1840 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterostropha) en Africa Occidental. 4. los géneros Megastomia, Odostomia, Noemiamea y Syrnola. Iberus 5(suppl): 1–150.
  • Peñas A, Rolán E (2010) Deep water Pyramidelloidea of the tropical South Pacific: Turbonilla and related genera. In: Gofas S (Ed.) Tropical Deep Sea Benthos 26.Mémoires du Muséum National d’Histoire Naturelle 200: 1–436.
  • Pimenta AD, Absalão RS (2001a) Taxonomic revision of the species of Turbonilla Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) with type localities in Brazil, and description of a new species. Basteria 65(1–3): 69–88.
  • Pimenta AD, Absalão RS (2001b) The genera Bacteridium Thiele, 1929 and Careliopsis Mörch, 1875 (Gastropoda: Pyramidellidae) from the east coast of South America. Bollettino malacologico 37(1–4): 41–48.
  • Pimenta AD, Absalão RS (2002) On the taxonomy of Turbonilla puncta (C. B. Adams, 1850) (Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae), with the description of a new species from Brazil and remarks on other western Atlantic species. Zootaxa 78: 1–16.
  • Pimenta AD, Absalão RS (2004a) Fifteen new species and ten new records of Turbonilla Risso, 1826 (Gastropoda, Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae) from Brazil. Bollettino malacologico 39(5–8): 113–140.
  • Pimenta AD, Absalão RS (2004b) Review of the genera Eulimastoma Bartsch, 1916 and Egila Dall & Bartsch, 1904 (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae) from Brazil. Zoosystema 26(2): 157–17.
  • Pimenta AD, Absalão RS, Alencar AS (2000) Odostomella carceralis spec. nov. from Ilha Grande, SE Brazil (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia, Pyramidellidae). Basteria 64: 65–70.
  • Pimenta AD, Santos FN, Absalão RS (2008) Review of the genera Ividia, Folinella, Oscilla, Pseudoseilla, Tryptichus and Peristichia (Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae) from Brazil, with descriptions of four new species. Veliger 50(3): 171–184.
  • Pimenta AD, Absalão RS, Miyaji C (2009) A taxonomic review of the genera Boonea, Chrysallida, Parthenina, Ivara, Fargoa, Mumiola, Odostomella and Trabecula (Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae, Odostomiinae) from Brazil. Zootaxa 2049: 39–66.
  • Pimenta AD, Geiger DL (2015) Taxonomic revision of the Anatomidae (Mollusca: Gastropoda: Vetigastropoda) from Brazil, with description of four new species. Malacologia 59(1): 135–175.
  • Pimenta AD, Santos FN, Absalão RS (2011) Taxonomic revision of the genus Eulimella (Gastropoda, Pyramidellidae) from Brazil, with description of three new species. Zootaxa 3063: 22–38.
  • Poirier HP (1954) An up-to-date systematic list of 3200 seashells from Greenland to Texas: translation, explanation, and gender of their names. Brooklyn[?], 434 pp.
  • Rasband WS (2012) ImageJ. U. S. National Institutes of Health, Bethesda.
  • Rehder HA (1939) New marine mollusks from the Western Atlantic. Nautilus 53(1): 16–21
  • Rios E (1994) Seashells of Brazil. Second edition. Editora da Fundação Universidade Rio Grande, Rio Grande, 368 pp.
  • Rios E (2009) Compendium of Brazilian sea shells. Evangraf, Rio Grande, 668 pp.
  • Rosenberg G, Moretzsohn F, García EF (2009) Gastropoda (Mollusca) of the Gulf of Mexico. In: Felder DL, Camp DK (Eds) Gulf of Mexico-Origins, Waters, and Biota.Biodiversity. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 579–699.
  • Salvador R, Cunha CM (2016) Taxonomic revision of the fossil genera Bulimactaeon, Hemiauricula (= Liocarenus) and Nucleopsis, with description of a new Recent genus and species (Gastropoda: Heterobranchia: Acteonidae). Journal of Molluscan Studies 82(3): 472–483.
  • Smriglio C, Mariottini P (1996) Central Tyrrhenian Sea Mollusca: XI. Description of Callostracon tyrrhenicum sp. nov. (Gastropoda, Acteonidae) and remarks on other Mediterranean species of the family. Basteria 60: 183–193.
  • Tunnell Jr JW, Andrews J, Barrera NC, Moretzsohn F (2010) Encyclopedia of Texas seashells. Identification, ecology, distribution & history. Texas A&M University Press, College Station, 512 pp.
  • Valdés Á (2008) Deep-sea “cephalaspidean” heterobranchs (Gastropoda) from the tropical southwest Pacific. In: Héros V, Cowie RH, Bouchet P (Eds) Tropical Deep-Sea Benthos, Volume 25.Annales du Muséum d’histoire naturelle 196, 587–792.
  • van Aartsen JJ (1984) The Pyramidellid genera described by the Marquis L. de Folin. Bollettino malacologico 20: 5–8.
  • van Aartsen JJ (1987) European Pyramidellidae: III. Odostomia and Ondina. Bollettino malacologico 23(1–4): 1–34.
  • Van Aartsen JJ, Menkhorst HPMG (1996) Nordsieck’s Pyramidellidae (GastropodaProsobranchia): a revision of his types. Part 1: The genera Chrysallida, Ondina (s.n. Evalea) and Menestho. Basteria 60: 45–56.
  • Van Aartsen JJ, Gittenberger E, Goud J (1998) Pyramidellidae (Mollusca, Gastropoda, Heterobranchia) collected during the Dutch CANCAP and MAURITANIA expeditions in the south-eastern part of the North Atlantic Ocean (part 1). Zoologische Verhandelingen 321: 1–57.
  • Verrill AE (1880–1881) Notice of recent addition to the marine Invertebrata of the northeastern coast of America, with descriptions of new genera and species and critical remarks on others. Part II - Mollusca, with notes on Annelida, Echinodermata, etc, collected by the United States Fish Commission. Proceedings of the United States National Museum 3: 356–409. [pp. 356–400 issued December 1880, 401–409 January 1881]
  • Verrill AE (1882) Catalogue of marine Mollusca added to the fauna of the New England region, during the past ten years. Transactions Connecticut Academy of Arts and Sciences 5(2): 447–587. [pl. 57–58]
  • Zelaya DG, Schejter L, Ituarte C (2011) Neactaeonina argentina, new species, and family placement of the genus Neactaeonina Thiele, 1912 (Mollusca: Gastropoda). Malacologia 53(2): 251–263.