Research Article
Research Article
Additional type and other notable specimens of Mollusca from the Montagu Collection in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery, Exeter
expand article infoP. Graham Oliver, Holly Morgenroth§
‡ National Museum of Wales, Cardiff, United Kingdom
§ Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery, Exeter, United Kingdom
Open Access


This paper completes the review of the Col. George Montagu collection of shells in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery, Exeter. A further twenty-one lots of type material were discovered bringing the total number of type lots to ninety-four. A number of other taxa that are of historic and potential nomenclatural significance are discussed. Specimens that relate to taxa of authors other than Montagu were isolated and consideration was given to the many non-British taxa that Montagu included in his works. To complete the study a list of all species represented in this collection is given.

Key Words

Montagu, regency period, type specimens, non-British exotic species, shell collection


In 2017 (Oliver et al. 2017) published a catalogue of the extant type material available for molluscan species described by George Montagu in 1803, 1804, 1808, 1813 and 1816. Following on from this further curatorial work was carried out in the Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery, primarily to investigate specimens that were described by contemporaries of Montagu notably Richard Pulteney, Edward Donovan, William Turton, Thomas Rackett and E. Mendes da Costa. Of special interest here were the many non-British species included by Montagu. During this work a number of type specimens reported as missing by Oliver et al. in 2017 were located. Given that the Montagu collection had been used as a source of display material, at least twice, and remounted during the process, since its acquisition it is not surprising that the original data had become obscured. The first part of this paper reports on these newly discovered type specimens.

The remainder of the paper analyses some notable, but not type specimens and the non-British shells extant in the Montagu collection. Many species that Montagu included had been noted by previous British authors such as E. M. da Costa (1778), Pulteney, (1799) and Donovan (1804). Our aim was to compare Montagu’s specimens with the published accounts to ascertain how accurately this material had been identified and could it be used as a proxy for type material for which little now remains.

Finally we will give an overview of the entire collection as it now exists in RAMM by presenting a list comparing the names used by Montagu and their current identifications. This will give further insight into how accurate Montagu’s works were.

Additional type specimens

The format of this section follows that adopted by Oliver et al. 2017.

Line 1 gives the original name as given by Montagu.

Line 2 gives the current name, superfamily and family placement. The synonymy of taxa generally follows MolluscaBase but not all taxa are yet included and other sources are quoted where appropriate.

Line 3 gives the full original reference

Line 4 gives the recorded localities as given by Montagu, therefore type localities. None of the original labels indicate the locality; all are subsequently inferred from literature.

Following this gives the data on available specimens, any confirmed designations and our suggested type status are given, Confirmed type material in bold font.

Wherever possible we have tried to give accurate determinations to the type material but we are not expert across the range of taxa included here. Anyone wishing to make lectotype selections is strongly advised to research the original descriptions, figures and specimens and not to rely unquestioning on this catalogue. The primary aim here is to make the collection available to research and is not definitive.

Abbreviations used in the catalogue are as follows: EXEMS, accepted international acronym for the Royal Albert Memorial Museum and Art Gallery in Exeter, England; RAMM, abbreviation of Royal Albert Memorial Museum & Art Gallery; sh., a complete shell, if a bivalve then both valves present; v., a single valve of a bivalve; frag. an incomplete and broken shell.

arcuatum Cardium Montagu, 1803. Figure 1.

Lucinella divaricata (Linnaeus, 1758) [Lucinoidea, Lucinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 85, Tab. 3 fig. 2.

Dredged in Falmouth Harbour, Cornwall.

EXEMS Moll3744, 1v. Syntype. Seen in RAMM by Jeffreys (1879: p.3) {“C(ardium) arcuatumLoripes divaricatus L.}.

Figures 1–5. 

1. Cardium arcuatum Montagu, 1803 [Lucinella divaricata (Linnaeus, 1758)] 1.1 Original hexagonal, blue, card mount and label. 1.2/1.3 Internal and external views of single right valve, Syntype, EXEMS Moll3744. 2. Mytilus avonensis Montagu, 1803 [Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus, 1758)] 2.1 Original label. 2.2 external of EXEMS Moll4037, Syntype. 2.3/2.4 external and internal of left valve of EXEMS Moll4038, Syntype. 3. Mactra boysii Montagu, 1803 [Abra alba (Wood, 1802)] 3.1 Modern box with label indicating Montagu collection. 3.2 external of right valve and 3.3/3.4 internals of left and right valves of EXEMS Moll4287a, Syntype. 4. Helix cingenda Montagu, 1803 [Theba pisana (Müller, 1774)]. 4.1 “Rowley” box and label containing 3 syntypes numbered 4143. 4.2 basal, apical and lateral views of EXEMS Moll4143a, Syntype. 5. Donax complanatus Montagu, 1803. [Donax variegatus (Gmelin, 1791)]. 5.1 “Rowley” label for lot 3720-2. 5.2 4 single valves EXEMS Moll3720–2, Syntypes. 5.3 External view of left valve, EXEMS Moll3720. 5.4 Internal view of right valve, EXEMS Moll3722

avonensis Mytilus Montagu, 1803. Figure 2.

Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus, 1758) [Unionoidea, Unionidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 172–173, not figured.

River Avon, Wiltshire, England.

EXEMS Moll4037-8, 2sh. Syntypes.

boisyi Mactra Montagu, 1803. Figure 3.

Abra alba (Wood, 1802) [Tellinoidea, Semelidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 98–99, Tab. 3 fig. 7.

Sandwich in Kent (from Boys), Salcombe; Biddeford; Studland.

EXEMS Moll4287, 2sh. +3v. Syntypes. No original labels but entered in register as “Ligula Boysii”.

cingenda Helix Montagu, 1803.Figure 4.

Theba pisana (Müller, 1774) [Helicoidea, Helicidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 418–420, not figured.


EXEMS Moll4143, 3sh. Syntypes. No original labels but entered in register as “Helix pisana, H. cingenda”.

complanatus Donax Montagu, 1803. Figure 5.

Donax variegatus (Gmelin, 1791) [Tellinoidea, Donacidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 106–107, Tab. 5, fig. 4.

Milton Sands, Falmouth.

EXEMS Moll3720-22, 2sh + 1v, Syntypes. No original label but listed as “D. complanatus” in register.

crenella Helix Montagu, 1803. Figure 6.

Vallonia costata (Müller, 1774) [Pupilloidea, Valoniidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 441–443, Tab. 13, fig. 3.

From Boys said to be found at Bullstrode (Lightfoot).

EXEMS Moll4149, blue card with 4 scars no shells attached.

At some time three lots of Vallonia were put together, two from the Montagu collection (lots 4148 and 4149) and one from the Malan collection (lot 4892). Lot 4148 carries a label ‘crenella’ while lot 4149 is labelled ‘paludosa’; lot 4892 is labelled ‘pulchella’. The three cards bear 16 scars in total but no shells are attached, seven shells are present but of these only one can be associated with a card. One shell has the remains of blue paper and glue corresponding exactly with a scar on the blue ‘paludosa’ card. Consequently we cannot associate any shells with the ‘crenella’ card and none of the shells can be regarded as type material of that taxon.

The shell from the paludosa card and two others are Vallonia excentrica Sterki, 1893 while the other four are probably all V. costata (Müller, 1774) (All identified by Ben Rowson).

Figures 6–10. 

6. Vallonia spp. 6.1 Mount with two Montagu blue hexagonal cards for Helix crenella Montagu, 1803 (EXEMS Moll4149) and Helix paludosa da Costa, 1778 (EXEMS Moll4148), no shells attached. 6.2 3 shells identified as Vallonia excentrica Sterki, 1893, one can be associated with paludosa card (arrowed). 6.3 4 shells tentatively identified as Vallonia costata (Müller, 1774). 7. Bulla diaphana Montagu, 1803 [Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799)]. 7.1 “Rowley” box for lot 4311 with 2 shells, Syntypes. 7.2 Montagu hexagonal blue card mount with 1 shell attached. 7.3 Apertural and abapertural views of largest but damaged syntype, EXEMS Moll4311a. 8. Helix lacuna Montagu, 1803 [Lacuna parva (da Costa, 1778)]. 8.1 Montagu black hexagonal card mount with 5 shells, bottom right (arrowed) is Lacuna vincta. 8.2 basal, apertural and abapertural view of 1 of 4 syntypes, EXEMS Moll4189. 9. Nautilus lacustris Montagu, 1803 [Segmentina nitida (Müller, 1774)]. 9.1 “Rowley” box with blue card and 4 shells, Syntypes, EXEMS Moll4106. 9.2 Montagu blue hexagonal card mount and printed label. 9.3 apical, basal and lateral views of syntype EXEMS Moll4106a. 10. Helix lutea Montagu, 1803 [Radix balthica (Linnaeus, 1758)]. 10.1 Old box and original hand-written label for lot 4117. 10.2 Apertural and abapertural views of unique syntype EXEMS Moll4117.

diaphana Bulla Montagu 1803. Figure 7.

Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799) [Velutinoidea, Triviidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 225–226, Tab. 7 fig. 8.

Salcombe Bay; Falmouth.

EXEMS Moll4311, 2 shells (1 damaged), Syntypes. Attached to an original hexagonal mounting card. Wrongly identified as Diaphana hyalina (Turton) = Diaphana minuta Brown, 1827.

lacuna Helix Montagu, 1803. Figure 8.

Lacuna parva (da Costa, 1778) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 428–429, Tab. 13 fig. 6.

Folkstone in Kent.

EXEMS Moll4189, 4sh. Syntypes. Attached to a black octagonal card, 5th shell is Lacuna vincta.

lacustris Nautilus Montagu, 1803. Figure 9.

Segmentina nitida (Müller, 1774) [Planorboidea, Planorbidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 191–195, Tab. 6 fig. 3.

Sandwich from Boys.

EXEMS Moll4146, 4 sh. Syntypes. Attached to an original Montagu hexagonal card mount.

lutea Helix Montagu, 1803. Figure 10.

Radix balthica (Linnaeus, 1758) [Lymnaeoidea, Lymnaeidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 380–381, Tab. 16 fig. 6.

South Devon; Salcombe Bay.

EXEMS Moll4117, 1sh. Syntype. Originally glued to a scrap of paper labelled “lutea” in Montagu’s hand.

novacula Solen Montagu, 1803. Figure 11

Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758) [Solenoidea, Pharidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 47–48, not figured.

Laugharne, Carmarthenshire.

EXEMS Moll3706-7, 2sh. Syntypes. 3707 with original label “novacula” attached. Seen by Jeffreys (1879, p.3) {“Solen novaculaS. siliqua, having the cardinal teeth broken off}.

Figures 11–15. 

11. Solen novacula Montagu, 1803 [Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758)] 11.1 External of right valve of syntype EXEMS Moll3707 with original label. 11.2 Internals of left and right valves of syntype EXEMS Moll3707. 12. Helix octanfracta Montagu, 1803 [Omphiscola glaber (Müller, 1774)]. 12.1 “Rowley” box with 11 shells, Syntypes, EXEMS Moll4121. 12.2 Apertural and abapertural views of a single syntype, EXEMS Moll4121a. 13. Helix patraea Montagu, 1803 [Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758)]. 13.1 “Rowley” box with card and 6 shells, Syntypes, EXEMS Moll4185. 13.2 Montagu hexagonal blue card with printed label. 13.3 Apertural and abapertural views of syntype EXEMS Moll4195a. 14. Solen pinna Montagu, 1803 [Pandora pinna (Montagu, 1803)]. 14.1 Green coloured wooden mount with single Montagu specimens attached. 14.2 Exterior of right and left valves of EXEMS Moll3703, possible syntype. 15. Donax plebeia Montagu, 1803 [Donacilla cornea (Poli, 1791)]. 15.1 Original label and 7 shells all syntypes EXEMS Moll4277. 15.2 Internal and external views of a single right valve, EXEMS Moll4277a.

octanfracta Helix Montagu, 1803. Figure 12.

Omphiscola glaber (Müller, 1774) [Lymnaeoidea, Lymnaeidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 396–398, Tab. 11 fig. 8.

Between Fowey and Looe in Cornwall.

EXEMS Moll4121, 11sh. Syntypes. No original label, entered in register as “Limnaea glaber, L. octanfracta”.

petraea Helix Montagu, 1803. Figure 13.

Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 403–404, not figured.

Mouth of R. Aun (Avon) at Bantum (Bantham) in Devon; Swanage.

EXEMS Moll4195, 6sh. Syntypes. Once attached to a Montagu hexagonal blue mounting card.

pinna Solen Montagu, 1803. Figure 14.

Pandora pinna (Montagu, 1803) [Pandoroidea, Pandoridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 566–567, Tab. 15 fig. 3.


EXEMS Moll3703, 1sh. Possible syntype. This shell has been remounted on a wooden block and although it carries a number from the Montagu collection there are no original labels. In the register it is listed as “Pandora inaequivalvis Linn” with a subscript of “Pandora obtusa”. As the name pinna is not present on the labels or register we are reluctant to give type status to this shell.

plebeia Donax Pulteney sensu Montagu, 1803. Figure 15.

Donacilla cornea (Poli, 1791) [Mactroidea, Mesodesmatidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 107–108, Tab. 5 fig 2.

Weymouth (from Bryer).

EXEMS Moll4277, 7v. Syntypes. Loose in box with original Montagu label “plebeia”.

Although attributed to Montagu in MolluscaBase and CLEMAM this name is first used by Pulteney (1799) as stated by Montagu.

rufa Nerita Montagu, 1803. Figure 16.

Euspira sp. juveniles [Naticoidea, Naticidae].

Montagu, G. 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 150–152, Tab. 30, fig. 3.

EXEMS Moll4190. 3sh. Attached to octagonal blue card.

Montagu described this species from a shell given to him or observed from the Laskey cabinet but the size of the shell far exceeds that of the present lot. These may be the small shells collected from Devon and mentioned by Montagu on p. 152. We would not consider these to be of type status.

Figures 16–21. 

16. Nerita rufa Montagu, 1803 [Euspira sp. juveniles]. 16.1 Montagu hexagonal blue card mount and hand written label with 3 shells all EXEMS Moll4190. 16.2 Abapertural, apertural and basal views of a single shell, EXEMS Moll4190a. 17. Turbo sexdentatus Montagu, 1803 [Vertigo antivertigo (Draparnaud, 1801)]. 17.1 “Rowley” box with blue card mount and 8 shells, EXEMS Moll4129. 17.2 Apertural view of a worn shell. 17.3 Apertural and abapertural views of a fresh shell. All are Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud, 1801). 18. Turbo subtruncatus Montagu, 1803 [Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1767)] . 18.1 Montagu blue hexagonal card mount with printed label. 18.2 Larger, but broken, syntype EXEMS Moll4255b. 18.3 Smaller syntype, mostly apex EXEMS Moll5255b. 19. Trochus tenuis Montagu, 1803 [Calliostoma granulatum (Born, 1778)]. 19.1 “Rowley” box with 3 shells, syntypes, EXEMS Moll4184. 19.2 Apertural and basal views of a single syntype, EXEMS Moll4184a. 20. Helix trochiformis Montagu, 1803 [Euconulus fulvus (Müller, 1774)]. 20.1 Montagu blue hexagonal card and printed label with 4 shells, all syntypes, EXEMS Moll4313. 20.2 Basal and apertural views of a single syntype, EXEMS Moll4313a. 20.3 Scanning electron micrograph of the apex. 21. Helix umbilicata Montagu, 1803 [Pyramidula umbilicata (Montagu, 1803)]. 21.1 “Rowley” box with card mount and 7 shells, all syntypes EXEMS Moll4147. 21.2 apertural, dasal and apical views of a single syntype, EXEMS Moll4147a.

sexdentatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. Figure 17.

Vertigo antivertigo (Draparnaud, 1801) [Pupilloidea, Vertiginidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 337–338, Tab. 12 fig. 8.

Cornwall; Devon; Lackham in Wiltshire.

EXEMS Moll4129, 8 sh. Attached to an original blue hexagonal mounting card.

The type status of these shells cannot be confirmed because they are not Vertigo antivertigo. All eight shells were removed from the card and their apertures cleaned and none have six apertural teeth. They are all Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud, 1801) [confirmed by Beata Pokryszko and Robert Cameron] and as such cast doubt about Montagu’s ability to discriminate these small species.

subtruncatus Turbo Montagu, 1803. Figure 18.

Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1767) [Truncatelloidea, Truncatellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 300, Tab. 10, fig 1.

Southampton; Salcombe.

EXEMS Moll4255b, 1sh. + 1 broken sh. Syntypes. In tube, once attached to Montagu blue hexagonal mounting card.

tenuis Trochus Montagu, 1803. Figure 19.

Calliostoma granulatum (Born, 1778) [Trochoidea, Trochidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 275–277, Tab. 10 fig 3.

Poole, Weymouth from Pulteney.

EXEMS Moll4184, 3sh. Syntypes. No original labels but listed as T. tenuis in register.

trochiformis Helix Montagu, 1803. Figure 20.

Euconulus fulvus (Müller, 1774) [Gastrodontoidea, Euconulidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 427–428 Tab. 11 fig. 9.

By R. Avon; Lackham in Wiltshire.

EXEMS Moll4313, 4 sh. Syntypes. Attached to Montagu blue hexagonal mounting card.

umbilicata Helix Montagu, 1803. Figure 21.

Pyramidula umbilicata (Montagu, 1803) [Pupilloidea, Pyramidulidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 434–435 Tab. 13 fig. 2.


EXEMS Moll4147, 7sh. Syntypes. Attached to Montagu blue hexagonal mounting card but no original label. Register entry as “Helix rupestris, H. umbilicata”.

Notable specimens

ambiguus Turbo, sensu Montagu ms. Figure 22.

EXEMS Moll4274, 1sh. With original Montagu label.

Turbo ambiguus is now considered to be a Fossarus and does not resemble the present shell in any way, which is an Epitonium and was not included in any of Montagu’s publications. The origin of the view that T. ambiguus was an Epitonium is unclear although Dillwyn (1817) was of the opinion that it was similar to E. clathrus. In a manuscript by William Lyons of Tenby he noted that Montagu identified a shell sent by him as this species. Montagu seemed to be aware that it is a different species from the similar Epitonium clathrus but failed to include it. It was subsequently described as Epitonium turtonis (Turton, 1819).

Figures 22–31. 

22. Turbo ambiguus sensu Montagu ms [Epitonium turtonis (Turton, 1819)] Label, abapertural and apertural views of EXEMS Moll4274. 23. Mytilus discrepans sensu Montagu 1808 [Musculus niger (Gray, 1824) Exterior of left valve in box with original label EXEMS Moll3938. 24. distorta Montagu, 1808 [Thracia convexa (Wood, 1815)], Label, interior and exterior of single right valve, EXEMS Moll4288. 25. Turbo costatus Adams, 1797 [Manzonia crassa (Kanmacher, 1798)] Montagu hexagonal blue card mount with 7 shells, furthest right is Rissoa parva; one enlarged, apertural view, EXEMS Moll4212. 26. Mactra hians Pulteney, 1799 [Lutraria oblonga (Gmelin, 1791)], external and internal views of a left valve, EXEMS Moll3771. 27. Turbo interruptus Adams, 1800 [Rissoa parva (da Costa, 1778)], Montagu black card mount with 3 shells, one enlarged abapertural view, EXEMS Moll4224. 28. Montagu’s specimens of Pecten jacobaeus (Linnaeus, 1758) EXEMS Moll4000. 29. Venus laminosa Montagu, 1808 [Chamelea striatula (da Costata, 1778)], EXEMS Moll4290. 30. Otina ovata (Brown, 1827) Montagu’s mount and 1 remaining shells of his “new No 3”. 31. Bulla punctalineata Montagu ms [Roxania utriculus (Brocchi, 1814)], EXEMS Moll4302.

costatus Turbo J.Adams, 1797. Figure 25.

Manzonia crassa (Kanmacher, 1798) [Trochoidea, Turbinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p. 311–312, Tab. 10, fig. 3

EXEMS Moll4212, 6sh (+ 1sh Rissoa parva).

The descriptions and figures given by Adams in his papers (Adams 1797a, b, 1800a, b) are scant and poor. Adams’ shells cannot be located and there is no evidence that Montagu ever saw them, deriving all his information from the papers. The identity of Adams’ species is not always clear but Montagu’s interpretations of them are among the first and may well have influenced later interpretations such as those by Dillwyn (1817) and Turton (1819).

Here we illustrate Turbo costatus sensu Montagu and see that it conforms to the current concept as Manzonia crassa.

discrepans Mytilus Montagu, 1803 (1808) in part. Figure 23.

Musculus niger (Gray, 1824) [Mytiloidea, Mytilidae].

Montagu, G. 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 65, Tab. 26, fig. 4.

EXEMS Moll3938, 1sh.

The shells originally described by Montagu in 1803 as M. discrepans are Musculus discors but in 1808 he noted a very large shell with a dark periostracum coming from Scotland and figured this on plate 26. This shell is probably the one present here and is Musculus niger.

distorta Ligula Montagu, 1808. Figure 24.

Thracia convexa (Wood, 1815) [Thracioidea, Thraciidae].

Montagu, G. 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 166, not figured.

Locality uncertain, may be Devon.

EXEMS Moll4288, 1v. Hinge mostly lost and valve broken in two. Original Montagu label present.

Montagu appears to have had some confusion with both Thracia pubescens and Thracia distorta. He described Thracia distorta in 1803 under Mya and considered his larger thin shells as distorta.

The one existing shell is Thracia convexa described and named by Wood some seven years later, but there is no mention of Montagu’s shells by Wood (1815).

hians Mactra Pulteney, 1799. Figure 26.

Lutraria oblonga (Gmelin, 1791) [Mactroidea, Mactridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 101–102, not figured.

Between Truro and Falmouth.

EXEMS Moll3770-1, 2sh. (1 with original Montagu label).

Montagu (1803) considered that this species was the magna of da Costa and oblonga of Gmelin, a situation that continued until Lucas (1985) argued that magna of da Costa was a synonym of lutraria Linnaeus, a position adopted by Huber (2010). MolluscaBase, which appears to follow Huber, considers hians of Pulteney to be a synonym of oblonga but magna of da Costa a synonym of lutraria. However the figures in da Costa and Pulteney are identical, those of Pulteney being based on da Costa. This would appear to challenge both Lucas and Huber and necessitates a new look at this synonymy.

interruptus Turbo J. Adams, 1800. Figure 27.

Rissoa parva (da Costa, 1778) [Rissooidea, Rissoidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 2. p 329–330, not figured.

EXEMS Moll4224, 3sh.

This is another example of an Adams species represented in the Montagu collection and as with Turbo costatus (above) these shells conform with current taxonomy as a smooth form of Rissoa parva (da Costa).

jacobaeus Pecten Linnaeus. Figure 28.

Pecten jacobaeus (Linnaeus, 1758) [Pectinoidea, Pectinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 144–145, not figured.

EXEMS Moll4000, 1sh.

Montagu included this species with little doubt although he accepted that it was rarely collected off the south of the British Isles. The single shell in RAMM is P. jacobaeus but this Mediterranean species is not known to live around the British Isles. The specimen is entire and in good condition and would appear to have been live collected.

laminosaVenus Montagu, 1808. Figure 29.

Chamelea striatula (da Costa, 1778) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Off May Island, Firth of Forth (from Laskey)….

EXEMS Moll4290 1sh.; 4291 1sh.; 4293 2v.

Montagu in describing Venus laminosa noted that he found the group of Venus cancellata difficult. He described Venus laminosa in 1808 (pp. 38–40) linking it with Venus cancellata and using a shell from the Laskey cabinet from the Firth of Forth as the basis. Jeffreys (1863, p. 346) gives it as a var. of Venus gallina and from then on the name disappears from the literature and is not in MolluscaBase or CLEMAM.

In RAMM there are 3 lots marked as new on the labels but in the register two of these lots are identified as Venus gallina var laminosa.

These shells are certainly Chameleagallina (striatula) but their status as types is doubtful as the type was in the Laskey cabinet. The description is of a wholly white shell with four teeth in each valve and this does not agree with the RAMM shells. Montagu stated that he had a single shell from Devonshire but was about half the size.

Otina ovata (Brown, 1827). Figure 30.

EXEMS Moll4244, 1sh.

This species was described by Turton in 1819 as Helix otis but is present in the Montagu collection labelled “New No 3”.

punctalineata Bulla Montagu ms. Figure 31.

EXEMS Moll4302, 1sh.

The single shell is Roxania utriculus (Brocchi, 1814) but Montagu’s name was never published; if it had been it would have take priority over that of Brocchi. This is a British species.

Exotic species

ambiguum Buccinum Pulteney, 1799. Figure 32.

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 242–243, pl. 9 fig 7.

EXEMS Moll4263, 1sh.

This species is included and figured by Montagu and is currently regarded a synonym of the Caribbean nassariid Phrontis antillarum (D’Orbigny, 1847) by MolluscaBase. Jeffreys (1867, p. 353) regarded it as a synonym of the common British Tritia incrassata (Strøm, 1768).

There are three scars on the mounting card but only one shell is present and this is about half the size of that given by Montagu. Given the small size of the RAMM shell there is uncertainty about its identity with a consensus that it may well be a worn and juvenile Tritia incrassata and that it is not Phrontis antillarum. Montagu stated that he had shells from Pulteney but also from Mr Bryer, all from Dorset.

Figures 32–39. 

32. Buccinum ambiguum Pulteney, 1799, Single remaining shell from Montagu mount is Tritia incrassata (Strøm, 1768), EXEMS Moll4263. 33. Bulla ampulla Linnaeus, 1758 Montagu mount and original label probably now Bulla occidentalis A. Adams. 1850. 34. Valves and original Montagu labels of Tellina bimaculata and Tellina variegata, both are Heterodonax bimaculata (Linnaeus, 1758), EXEMS Moll4280 & 4282. 35. Tellina carnaria Linnaeus, 1758 [Strigilla carnaria (Linnaeus, 1758)], register entry and single valve for EXEMS Moll3745. 36. Strombiformis costatus da Costa, 1778 [Cerithideopsis costata (da Costa, 1778)], Montagu mount and single remaining shell. EXEMS Moll4271. 37. Venus deflorata Linnaeus, 1758 [Asaphis deflorata (Linnaeus, 1758)], EXEMS Moll4296. 38. Venus dysera Gmelin, 1791, Montagu mount with 1 valve and 1 loose valve marked “Dunbar” EXEMS Moll4276, probably Chione cf. elevata (Say, 1822). 39. Donax denticulatus Linnaeus 1758, one of 2 valves from the Montagu collection EXEMS Moll3728.

ampulla Bulla Linnaeus / Bulla striata. Figure 33.

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 206, pl. 7 fig 1.

EXEMSMoll4300, 1sh.

This single shell is probably that described as Bulla ampulla; the label ampulla is hand written and attached to a blue card but that for striata is printed and probably later in date. Both names are entered in the register. Bulla ampulla is Indo-Pacific and B. striata is not British. Given the number of West Indian exotics included by Montagu it is more likely that this is Bulla occidentalis A. Adams, 1850, the western Atlantic sister species to B. striata. (Manuel Malaquias pers. comm.)

bimaculata Tellina Linnaeus, 1758. Figure 34.

Heterodonax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758) [Tellinoidea, Psammobiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 69–70.

EXEMS Moll4280 (as variegata) 2sh. & EXEMS Moll4282 1sh.

Montagu described both under Tellina bimaculata and stated that he got shells from Mr Bryer collected between Weymouth and Portland. Both EXEMSMoll4280 & 4282 are Heterodonax bimaculata (Linnaeus, 1758) a Caribbean shell.

carnaria Tellina Linnaeus, 1758. Figure 35.

Strigilla carnaria (Linnaeus, 1758) [Tellinoidea, Tellinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 73–74.

EXEMS Moll3745, 1v.

Montagu included this species but was sceptical of the reports of da Costa and Pulteney that it was common, Montagu himself having never found it. Montagu did not state where the shell he described came from. The RAMM valve is Strigilla carnaria, a widespread Caribbean species.

costatus Strombiformis da Costa, 1778. Figure 36.

Cerithideopsis costata (da Costa, 1778) [Cerithioidea, Planaxiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 255.

EXEMS Moll4271, 1sh.

This species is included by Montagu under Strombus costatus Pult. and stated that he collected it from Milton Sands in South Devon; da Costa stated that it was found in Cornwall. Montagu appears to accept that this was an English shell. Jeffreys also stated that this is the Strombus turboformis Montagu, 1808 but this taxon is not mentioned in MolluscaBase.

In the USNM, the Jeffreys collection contains 13 shells as from the Republic of Ireland but Jeffreys (1867) himself refuted this species as British. One of the USNM lots is labelled as from ballast. These shells may actually be from Dillwyn who went to Ireland to collect on spoil heaps but from the description in Dillwyn (1817, p. 678–9) and as Jeffreys states these are Cerithium reticulatum.

The shell in RAMM is the Caribbean Cerithideopsis costata (da Costa, 1778) and is labelled as costatus so cannot be taken for turboformis, the type of which remains unfound.

deflorata Venus Linnaeus, 1758. Figure 37.

Asaphis deflorata (Linnaeus, 1758) [Tellinoidea, Psammobiidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 123, pl. 3 fig 4

EXEMS Moll4296, 1sh. + 1v.

Although numbered in the Montagu register these shells are not named. They agree entirely with Montagu’s description and the smaller complete shell may be the one mentioned by Montagu as coming from Falmouth. Pennant (1777) was the first to say this was a British shell but he gave no locality.

denticulatus Donax Linnaeus, 1758. Figure 39.

Donax denticulatus Linnaeus , 1758 [Tellinoidea, Donacidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 104–5.

EXEMS Moll3728, 2v.

The two valves present in RAMM carry the label “Do trunculus” but this was changed in the register to Donax denticulatus. Montagu describes D. denticulatus and his description fits with these shells. He stated that he was given shells by Mr Bryer presumably from Weymouth. Montagu doubted it to be British, it is a West Indian species currently accepted as Donax denticulatus Linnaeus, 1758.

dysera Venus Gmelin, 1791. Figure 38.

Chione cf. elevata (Say, 1822) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu, G. 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 42 and p.174.

EXEMS Moll4276, 2v worn.

Two valves labelled as dysera are present, one labelled from Dunbar in Scotland. The Dunbar locality agrees with the locality of Firth of Forth given by Montagu and as received from Laskey (Laskey 1811). This species is included in the Supplement (1808, p. 42 and in the list of North British on p. 174). Both valves are worn and belong to the genus Chione but their identity is not certain although most probably Chione elevata Say, 1822 rather than C. dysera or C. cancellata (Peter Roopnarine pers. comm.).

fausta Tellina Pulteney, 1799. Figure 42.

Arcopagia fausta (Pulteney, 1799) [Tellinoidea, Tellinidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 64–5.

EXEMS Moll4278, 1v.

Montagu included this species without questioning its origin. Pulteney is said to have found it at Weymouth. Montagu quotes a size of 1.75 inches but the RAMM shell is very large, 2.75 inches (70 mm). It is Arcopagia (Johnsonella) fausta (Pulteney, 1799), which is Caribbean in distribution.

fragilis Solen Pulteney, 1799. Figure 40.

Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794) [Tellinoidea, Solecurtidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 51–2. & 1808 Suppl. Test. Brit. p.26

EXEMS Moll3716, 1v.

Considerable confusion surrounded this taxon in early years through its likeness to Solen antiquatus =Azorinus chamasolen resulting in both Maton & Rackett and Turton making incorrect references to other authors such as Pennant. The name is Pulteney’s and was described by Montagu (1803, p. 51–52) who states he received a shell from Rackett collected on the Dorset coast. In 1808 (p. 26) Montagu refered to the confusion made by Rackett establishing that fragilis is not antiquatus.

The single valve in RAMM is Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794) a species from the NE coast of the USA.

Figures 40–46. 

40. Solen fragilis Pulteney, 1799 [Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794)], single valve and Montagu label, EXEMS Moll3716. 41. Venus granulata Gmelin 1791 [Leukoma granulata (Gmelin, 1791)], Single valve with Montagu label, EXEMS Moll4286. 42. Tellina fausta Puteney, 1799 [Arcopagia fausta (Pulteney, 1799)] Montagu label and single valve, EXEMS Moll4278. 43. Tellina laeta Pulteney, 1799, 2 valves with a Montagu label, EXEMS Moll4279; upper, white valve is Eurytellina alternata (Say, 1822); lower, pink valve is Eurytellina cf. angulosa (Gmelin, 1791). 44. Venus guineensis Gmelin, 1791 [Lamelliconcha circinata (Born, 1778)], Single valve and Montagu label marked “Weymouth”, EXEMS Moll4295. 45. Helix octona Linnaeus, 1758 [Subulina octona (Bruguière, 1789)], Single shell from Montagu blue card mount attached to wooden plinth; label reads “Mr Dillwin, Bantry Bay”, EXEMS Moll4275. 46. Buccinum lineatum da Costa, 1778 [Angiola lineata (da Costa, 1778)], Montagu card mount with 2 remaining shells, one enlarged.

granulata Venus Gmelin, 1791. Figure 41.

Leukoma granulata (Gmelin, 1791) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 122–3.

EXEMS Moll4286, 1v.

This species is described by Montagu and he stated that he took it from sand in Falmouth harbour. The RAMM shell is Leukoma granulata (Gmelin, 1791) a Western Atlantic species.

guineensisVenus Gmelin, 1791. Figure 44.

Lamelliconcha circinata (Born, 1778) [Veneroidea, Veneridae].

Montagu, G. 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 48 and p.168.

EXEMS Moll4295, 1v.

Venus guineensis was included in the Supplement (1808, p. 48) on the basis of a shell from Scotland collected by Laskey. The shell in RAMM is labelled as from Weymouth and is probably the shell mentioned on page 168 where Montagu noted a small shell from the Bryeran cabinet collected from Weymouth. The RAMM shell is Lamelliconcha circinata (Born, 1778), Venus guineensis is a synonym, a species from the West Indies..

laeta Tellina Pulteney, 1799. Figure 43.

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 57–8.

EXEMS Moll4279, 2v.

Montagu included this species in Testacea Britannica and again had specimens from Mr Bryer collected between Poole and Weymouth. Current synonymy places this species as a junior synonym of Tellina angulosa Gmelin (1791) but we are doubtful of this for one of the valves here. The larger white specimen has the pallial sinus attached to the adductor by a thin line; following Boss (1968) this would place it as Eurytellina alternata (Say, 1822).

lineatum Buccinum da Costa, 1778. Figure 46.

Angiola lineata (da Costa, 1778) [Cerithioidea, Planaxidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 245–6.

EXEMS Moll4264, 2sh.

Buccinum lineatum da Costa is included in the Testacea Britannica but Montagu was initially doubtful about the inclusion of this species as British but he then stated that they collected it between Weymouth and Portland and that Mr Bryer also collected it from Weymouth. The two shells (remaining of four) now present in the RAMM collection are undoubtedly Angiola lineata da Costa, 1778 as currently understood. It is very doubtful that they were collected alive in the British Isles.

octona Helix Linnaeus, 1767. Figure 45.

Subulina octona (Bruguière, 1789) [Achatinoidea, Achatinidae].

Montagu, G. 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 144.

EXEMS Moll4275, 1sh.

This species was introduced as British by Pulteney (1799) and restated by Maton & Rackett (1807) and then by Montagu, all referrring this taxon to Linnaeus. Montagu (1808) was reluctant to accept this species as British but it would appear that specimens were in circulation in the early 19th century. The Lyons collection, (dating from around 1810) in Tenby contains two lots both with Weymouth (from Miss Pocock) as their origin, and in keeping with the original record of Pulteney. The RAMM label gives the source as “Mr Dillwin, Bantry Bay” and this would coincide with Dillwyn’s visit to Ellen Hutchins the Irish botanist in 1809. The RAMM and Tenby shells are in good condition but it is not known if they were collected from sites in the UK or from collections brought back from its native Caribbean.

Jeffreys (1864, p. 299) concluded that Pulteney had mistakenly used the name for Omphiscola glaber by adopting the name of Helix octona Pennant, 1777.

pallida Voluta or Bulla Linnaeus, 1758. Figure 48.

Hyalina pallida (Linnaeus, 1758) [Marginellidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 232–233.

EXEMS Moll4301, 2 sh.

Montagu stated that da Costa must have been mistaken in regarding it as common on west coasts and goes on to say that neither he nor Pulteney ever found it. The provenance of the two shells in RAMM is not known, the species is widespread in the Caribbean

pintadoTurbo Figure 47.

Littoraria pintado (Wood, 1828) [Littorinoidea, Littornidae].

EXEMS Moll4307, 2sh.

This species is not included in any of Montagu’s publications and it is puzzling, as it was not described until 1828 by Wood. The mount and label are typical of all of the Montagu mounts in Exeter. This is the only original label in the Montagu collection that bears a species name erected after the death of Montagu. There are a number of unpublished names on similar labels and one can only surmise that this is a manuscript name adopted at a later date by Wood.

These shells have the operculum in place suggesting they were collected alive, which is unlike the majority of the exotic shells in the collection as most are worn and have some degree of incrustation upon them. It is noteworthy that the specimens of Echinolittorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791) in the Montagu collections also have the operculum in place and appear live collected.

Figures 47–53. 

47. Turbo pintado Wood, 1828. [Littoraria pintado (Wood, 1828)], Montagu card mount and label with 1 of 2 shells, EXEMS Moll4307. 48. Voluta pallida Linnaeus, 1758 [Hyalina pallida (Linnaeus, 1758), Montagu card and label with 2 shells, larger shell cleaned, EXEMS Moll4301. 49. Tellina striata Gmelin, 1791 [Eurytellina lineata (Turton, 1819)], Montagu label and 2 valves, upper valve marked “Dunbar”, EXEMS Moll4281. 50. Tellina proficua Pulteney, 1799 [Semele proficua (Pulteney, 1799)], Montagu label and single valve, EXEMS Moll4283. 51. Venus tigerina Linnaeus, 1753, Montagu label and single valve, EXEMS Moll4285, is Codakia orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1785). 52. Voluta triplicata Donovan, 1802 [Tralia ovula (Bruguière, 1789)], Montagu mount, label and single shell, EXEMS Moll4298. 53. Turbo ziczac Gmelin, 1791 [Echinolittorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791)], Montagu mount, label and 1 of 2 shells, EXEMS Moll4306.

proficua Tellina Pulteney, 1799. Figure 50.

Semele proficua (Pulteney, 1799) [Tellinoidea, Semelidae].

Montagu G 1803. Test. Brit. Part 1. p. 66–7.

EXEMS Moll4283, 1v.

Tellina proficua Pulteney is described by Montagu and he stated that he received his shell from Rackett and that it came from Dorsetshire. Montagu’s shell consists of a single left valve and is rather worn, it does agree with Semele proficua (Pulteney, 1799) as currently understood. Pulteney stated he also got his shells from Dorsetshire between Poole and Weymouth. This a Caribbean species.

striata Tellina Gmelin. Figure 49.

Eurytellina lineata (Turton, 1819) [Tellinoidea. Tellinidae].

EXEMS Moll4281, 2v.

Montagu described this species in 1803, figured it in 1808 and stated he got his shells from Mr Bryer from between Poole and Weymouth. One valve however is marked “Dunbar” and this species is noted in 1808, List of North British Shells.

Boss (1966) placed Tellina striata sensu Montagu into synonymy of Tellinalineata Turton, 1819, now Eurytellina lineata (Turton, 1819) a widespread Caribbean species.

tigerina Venus Linnaeus, 1758. Figure 51.

Codakia orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1785) [Lucinoidea, Lucinidae].

EXEMS Moll4285, 1v.

Montagu described and figured Venus tigerina indicating that it is a West Indian shell. The RAMM shell is Codakia orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1758) [confirmed by John Taylor pers. comm.] from the West Indies and agrees approximately in size but not in shape, so doubtfully the illustrated shell.

triplicata Voluta Donovan, 1802. Figure 52.

Tralia ovula (Bruguière, 1789) [Ellobioidea, Ellobiidae].

Montagu, G. 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 99.

EXEMS Moll4298, 1sh.

Montagu included this species in the Supplement and stated that he had a shell of this species from Guernsey. A single shell is present in RAMM with an original Montagu label and card.

Martins (1996) noted that the type of triplicata could not be found and cited Montagu as the next British author to include the species in the British fauna. Dillwyn (1817) quotes directly from Montagu. Frias Martins (1996) illustrated a shell from the Turton collection identified a triplicata but coming from the West Indies.

The Montagu shell is Tralia ovula Bruguière, 1789 as confirmed by Tony Frias Martins (pers. comm.).

ziczac Turbo Gmelin, 1791. Figure 53.

Echinolittorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791) [Littorinoidea, Littorinidae].

Montagu, G. 1808. Suppl. Test. Brit. p. 135.

EXEMS Moll4306, 2sh.

The two shells in RAMM have intact operculums indicating they were live collected. Montagu included this species in his Supplement but said nothing of its provenance. It is a common Caribbean shell.

List of taxa present in the Montagu collection in RAMM Exeter

The following is a summary of the entire Montagu collection in RAMM. The collection contains few duplicate lots and was perhaps a voucher series retained by Montagu’s wife Eliza, following the sale of the major part of the collection to the then British Museum. All lots are listed including duplicates. The first line in bold text is the name as used by Montagu in his publications and in these he gave the authority but not the date, the second in normal text is our current identification using nomenclature from MolluscaBase. A number of specimens bear label names that are not present in any of Montagu’s publications or only bear labels that are more recent. Type material is denoted by the prefix superscript T.

Anomia ephippium Linnaeus - Anomia ephippium Linnaeus, 1758

Arca fusca Donovan - Tetracra tetragona (Poli, 1791)

Arca lactea Linnaeus - Striarca lactea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Arca minuta Gmelin - Nuculana minuta (Müller, 1776)

Arca nucleus Linnaeus - Nucula nucleus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Arca pilosa Linnaeus - Glycymeris glycymeris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Buccinum ambiguum Pulteney - Tritia incrassata (Strøm, 1768)

Buccinum lapillus Linnaeus - Nucella lapillus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Buccinum lineatum da Costa - Angiola lineata (da Costa, 1778)

TBuccinum minimum Montagu Chauvetia brunnea (Donovan, 1804)

Buccinum reticulatum Linnaeus - Tritia reticulata (Linnaeus, 1758)

TBuccinum terrestre Montagu Cecilioidea acicula (Müller, 1774)

Buccinum undatum Linnaeus - Buccinum undatum Linnaeus, 1758

Bulla akera Gmelin - Akera bullata (Müller, 1776)

Bulla ampulla Linnaeus - Bulla occidentalis A.Adams, 1850

Bulla aperta Linnaeus - Philine aperta (Linnaeus, 1767)

Bulla cylindaecea Pennant - Cylichna cylindracea (Pennant, 1777)

TBulla diaphana Montagu Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799)

Bulla fontinalis Linnaeus - Physa fontinalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

TBulla haliotoidea Montagu Lamellaria perspicua (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bulla hydatis Linnaeus - Haminoea hydatis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bulla hypnorum Linnaeus - Aplexa hypnorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Bulla lignaria Linnaeus - Scaphander lignarius (Linnaeus, 1758)

TBulla obtusa Montagu Retusa obtusa (Montagu, 1803)

TBulla plumula Montagu Berthella plumula (Montagu, 1803)

Cardium amnicum Gmelin - Pisidium amnicum (Müller, 1774)

TCardium arcuatum Montagu - Lucinella divaricata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Cardium corneum Linnaeus - Sphaerium corneum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Cardium echinatum Linnaeus - Acanthocardia echinata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Cardium edule Linnaeus - Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus, 1758)

Cardium edule Linnaeus - Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus, 1758)

TCardium elongatum Montagu - Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus, 1758)

Cardium exiguum Gmelin - Parvicardium exiguum (Gmelin, 1791)

Cardium fasciatum Montagu - Parvicardium exiguum (Gmelin, 1791)

Cardium lacustre Gmelin - Musculium lacustre (Müller, 1774)

Cardium laevigatum Linnaeus - Laevicardium crassum (Gmelin, 1791)

TCardium rubrum Montagu Lasaea rubra (Montagu, 1803)

Cardium rusticum Donovan - Cerastoderma edule (Linnaeus, 1758)

Chiton albus Linnaeus - Stenosemus albus (Linnaeus, 1767)

Chiton fascicularis Linnaeus - Acanthochitona fascicularis (Linnaeus, 1767)

TCypraea bullata Montagu - Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799)

Cypraea europaea Montagu - Trivia arctica (Pulteney, 1799)

TCypraea europaea Montagu - Trivia monacha (da Costa, 1778)

TCypraea voluta Montagu - Erato voluta (Montagu, 1803)

TDonax castaneus Montagu - Ervilia castanea (Montagu, 1803)

TDonax complanatus Montagu - Donax variegatus Gmelin, 1791)

Donax denticulatus Linnaeus - Donax denticulatus Linnaeus, 1758

Donax irus Linnaeus - Irus irus (Linnaeus, 1758)

TDonax plebeia Montagu - Donacilla cornea (Poli, 1791)

Donax trunculus Linnaeus - Donax vittatus da Costa,1778

Haliotis tuberulata Linnaeus - Haliotis tuberculata Linnaeus, 1758

Helix alba Gmelin - Gyraulus albus (Müller, 1774)

Helix aspersa Gmelin - Cornu aspersum (Müller, 1774)

Helix auricularia Linnaeus - Radix auricularia (Linnaeus, 1758)

THelixcantiana Montagu - Monacha cantiana (Montagu, 1803)

THelix caperata Montagu - Candidula intersecta (Poiret, 1801)

THelix cingenda Montagu Theba pisana (Müller, 1774)

Helix contorta Linnaeus - Bathyomphalus contortus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix cornea Linnaeus - Planorbarius corneus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix cristata Müller - Valvata cristata (Müller, 1774)

THelix decussata Montagu - Zebinella decussata (Montagu, 1803)

Helix detrita Montagu non Müller - Drymaeus elongatus (Röding, 1798)

Helix fossaria Montagu?- Galba truncatula (Müller, 1774)

Helix gibbsii ms in Leach Monacha cartusiana (Müller, 1774)

Helix hortensis Gmelin - Cepaea hortensis (Müller, 1774)

THelix labiosa Montagu, 1803 - Rissoa membranacea (Adams, 1800)

THelix lackhamensis Montagu - Ena montana (Draparnaud, 1801)

Helix laevigata Linnaeus - Velutina velutina (Müller, 1776)

Helix lapicida Linnaeus - Helicigona lapicida (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix limosa Linnaeus and Helix peregra LinnaeusRadix labiata (Rossmässler, 1835)

Helix lubrica Gmelin - Cochlicopa lubrica (Müller, 1774)

THelix lutea Montagu, 1803 - Radix balthica (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix nautileus Linnaeus - Gyraulus crista (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix obscura Gmelin - Merdigera obscura (Müller, 1774)

THelix octanfracta Montagu - Omphiscola glabra (Müller, 1774)

Helix octona Linn. - Subulina octona (Bruguière, 1789)

Helix palustris Gmelin - Stagnicola palustris (Müller, 1774)

THelix petraea Montagu - Melarhaphe neritoides (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix polita Pulteney - Melanella polita (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix pomatia Linnaeus - Helix pomatia Linnaeus, 1758

Helix putris Linnaeus - Succinea putris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix radiata da Costa - Discus rotundatus (Müller, 1774)

Helix spinulosa Lightfoot - Acanthinula aculeata (Müller, 1774)

Helix spirorbis Linnaeus - Anisus spirorbis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix stagnalis Linnaeus and Helix fragilis Linnaeus - Lymnaea stagnalis (Linnaeus, 1758)

THelix subcarinata Montagu - Tornus subcarinatus (Montagu, 1803)

THelix trochiformis Montagu - Euconulus fulvus (Müller, 1774)

THelix umbilicata Montagu - Pyramidula umbilicata (Montagu, 1803)

Helix virgata Pulteney - Cernuella virgata (da Costa, 1778)

Helix viviparia Linnaeus - Viviparus viviparus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Helix vortex Linnaeus - Anisus vortex (Linnaeus, 1758)

Ligula distorta Montagu - Thracia convexa (Wood, 1815)

TLigula prismatica Montagu - Abra prismatica (Montagu, 1808)

TMactra boysii Montagu - Abra alba (Wood, 1802)

TMactra cinerea Montagu - Mactra stultorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Mactra compressa Pulteney - Scrobicularia plana (da Costa, 1778)

Mactra hians Pulteney - Lutraria oblonga (Gmelin, 1791)

Mactra solida Linnaeus - Spisula solida (Linnaeus, 1758)

Mactra stultorum Linnaeus - Mactra stultorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Mactra subtruncata da Costa - Spisula subtruncata (da Costa, 1778)

TMactra tenuis Montagu - Abra tenuis (Montagu, 1803)

TMactra triangularis Montagu - Goodallia triangularis (Montagu, 1803)

TMactra truncata Montagu - Spisula solida (Linnaeus, 1758)

Mactra truncata Montagu - Spisula subtruncata (da Costa, 1778)

TMurex adversus Montagu - Marshallora adversa (Montagu, 1803)

TMurex attenuatus Montagu - Mangelia attenuata (Montagu, 1803)

Murex corneus Linnaeus - Colus gracilis (da Costa, 1778)

Murex despectus Linnaeus - Neptunea antiqua (Linnaeus, 1758)

Murex erinaceus Linnaeus - Ocenebra erinaceus (Linnaeus, 1758)

TMurexgracilis Montagu - Comarmondia gracilis (Montagu, 1803)

TMurexlinearis Montagu - Raphitoma linearis (Montagu, 1803)

TMurexmuricatus Montagu - Trophonopsis muricatus (Montagu, 1803)

TMurexnebula Montagu - Bela nebula (Montagu, 1803(

TMurex purpureus Montagu - Raphitoma purpurea (Montagu, 1803)

Murex reticulatus da Costa - Bittium reticulatum (da Costa, 1778)

TMurex rufus Montagu - Propebela rufa (Montagu, 1803)

TMurex septangularis Montagu - Haedropleura septangularis (Montagu, 1903)

TMurex tubercularis Montagu - Cerithiopsis tuberularis (Montagu, 1803)

TMurex turricula Montagu - Propebela turricula (Montagu, 1803)

Mya arenaria Linnaeus - Mya arenaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

TMya distorta Montagu - Thracia distorta (Montagu, 1803)

TMya inaequivalvis Montagu - Corbula gibba (Olivi, 1792)

Mya margaritifera Linnaeus - Margaritifera margaritifera (Linnaeus, 1758)

TMya ovalis Montagu - Unio tumidus Philippson, 1788

TMya pholadia Montagu - Rocellaria dubia (Pennant, 1777)

Mya praetenuis Pult - Cochlodesma pratenue (Pulteney, 1799)

Mya pubescens Pulteney- Thracia phaseolina (Lamarck, 1818)

Mya pubescens Pulteney - Thracia pubescens (Pulteney, 1799)

TMya striata Montagu - Lyonsia norwegica (Gmelin, 1791)

TMya suborbicularis Montagu - Kellia suborbicularis (Montagu, 1803)

Mya truncata Linnaeus - Mya truncata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Mytilis discors Linnaeus - Musculus subpictus (Cantraine, 1835)

Mytilis incurvatus Pennant - Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758

Mytilus anatinus Linnaeus - Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus, 1758)

TMytilus avonensis Montagu - Anodonta anatina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Mytilus barbatus Linnaeus - Modiolus barbatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

TMytilus discrepans Montagu - Musculus discors (Linnaeus, 1767)

Mytilus edulis Linnaeus - Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758

Mytilus incurvatus Pennant - Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758

Mytilus modiolus Linnaeus - Modiolus modiolus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Mytilus pellucidus Pennant - Mytilus edulis Linnaeus, 1758

Mytilus praecisus Montagu - Sphenia binghami Turton, 1819

Mytilus rugosus Linnaeus - Hiatella arctica (Linnaeus, 1758)

TNautilus lacustris Montagu - Segmentina nitida (Müller, 1774)

Neritafluviatilis Linnaeus - Theodoxus fluviatilis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Nerita glaucina Linnaeus - Euspira catena (da Costa, 1778)

Nerita pallidula da Costa - Lacuna pallidula (da Costa, 1778)

TPatella apertura Montagu - Diodora graeca (Linnaeus, 1758)

Patella chinensis Linnaeus - Calyptraea chinensis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Patella fissura Linnaeus - Emarginula fissura (Linnaeus, 1758)

Patella fluviatilis Gmelin - Ancylus fluviatilis Müller, 1774

Patella lacustris Linnaeus - Acroloxus lacustris (Linnaeus, 1758)

Patella militaris Linnaeus - Capulus ungaricus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Patella pellucida Linnaeus - Patella pellucida Linnaeus, 1758

Pecten distortus da Costa - Talochlamys pusio (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pecten jacobaeus Linnaeus - Pecten jacobaeus (Linnaeus 1758)

Pecten maximus Linnaeus - Pecten maximus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pecten obsoletus Pennant - Palliolum tigerinum (Müller, 1776)

Pecten opercularis Linnaeus - Aequipecten opercularis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pecten varius Linnaeus - Mimachlamys varia (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pholas candidus Linnaeus - Barnea candida (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pholas crispata Linnaeus - Zirfaea crispata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pholas dactylus Linnaeus - Pholas dactylus Linnaeus, 1758

Pholas parvus Pennant - Barnea parva (Pennant, 1777)

Pholas striatus Linnaeus - Martesia striata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Pinna pectinata Linnaeus / Pinna ingens Pennant - Atrina fragilis (Pennant, 1777)

Solen antiquatus Pulteney - Azorinus chamasolen (da Costa, 1778)

Solen fragilis Pulteney - Tagelus divisus (Spengler, 1794)

Solen legumen Linnaeus - Pharus legumen (Linnaeus, 1758)

TSolen novacula Montagu - Ensis siliqua (Linnaeus, 1758)

Solen pellucidus Pennant - Phaxas pellucidus (Pennant, 1777)

TSolen pinna Montagu - Pandora pinna Montagu

Solen vagina Linnaeus - Solen vagina Linnaeus, 1758

Solen vespertinus Gmelin - Gari depressa (Pennant, 1777)

Strombus costatus da Costa - Cerithideopsis costata (da Costa, 1778)

Strombus pes pelecani Linnaeus - Aporrhais pespelecani (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tellina bimaculata Linnaeus - Heterodonax bimaculatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tellina carnaria Linnaeus - Strigilla carnaria (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tellina crassa Gmelin - Arcopagia crassa (Pennant, 1777)

Tellina donacina Linnaeus - Moerella donacina (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tellina fabula Gmelin - Fabulina fabula (Gmelin, 1791)

Tellina fausta Pulteney - Arcopagia fausta (Pulteney, 1799)

Tellina fervensis Gmelin - Gari fervensis (Gmelin, 1791)

TTellina flexuosa Montagu Thyasira flexuosa (Montagu, 1803)

Tellina lactea Linnaeus - Loripes orbiculatus (Poli, 1791)

Tellina laeta Pulteney - Tellina angulosa Gmelin, 1791 ?

TTellina laskeyi Montagu


Tellina proficua Pulteney - Semele proficua (Pulteney, 1799)

TTellina radula Montagu Lucinoma borealis (Linnaeus, 1767)

TTellina rotundata Montagu - Diplodonta rotundata (Montagu, 1803)

Tellina solidula Pulteney - Limecola balthica (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tellina squalida Pulteney - Bosemprella incarnata (Linnaeus, 1758)

Tellina striata Gmelin - Eurytellina lineata (Turton, 1819)

Tellina tenuis da Costa - Macomangulus tenuis (da Costa, 1778)

Teredo navalis Linnaeus - Nototeredo norvagica (Spengler, 1792)

Teredo navalis Linnaeus - Nototeredo norvagica (Spengler, 1792)

Trochus cinereus da Costa - Steromphala cineraria (Linnaeus,1758)

Trochus crassus Pulteney - Phorcus lineatus (da Costa, 1778)

Trochus exiguus Pulteney - Jujubinus exasperatus (Pennant, 1777)

Trochus magus Linnaeus - Gibbula magus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Trochus striatus Linnaeus - Jujubinus striatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

TTrochus tenuis Montagu - Calliostoma granulatum (Born, 1778)

TTrochus tumidus Montagu - Gibbula tumida (Montagu, 1803)

TTrochus umbilicatus Montagu - Steromphala umbilicalis (da Costa, 1778)

Trochus ziziphinus Linnaeus - Calliostoma zizyphinum (Linnaeus, 1758)

TTurbo biplicatus Montagu - Alinda biplicatus (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo bryereus Montagu - Schwartziella bryerea (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo canalis Montagu - Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803)

Turbo carychium MüllerCarychium minimum (Müller, 1774)

TTurbo cingillus Montagu Cingula trifasciata (J. Adams, 1800)

Turbo clathratulus Turton - Epitonium clathratulum (Kanmacher, 1798)

Turbo clathrus Linnaeus - Epitonium clathrus (Linnaeus, 1758)

TTurbo crassior Montagu - Lacuna crassior (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbodecussatus Montagu - Parthenina decussata (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo dispar Montagu - Littorina dispar (Montagu, 1816)

Turbo elegans Gmelin - Pomatius elegans (Müller, 17774)

TTurbo elegantissimus Montagu - Turbonilla lactea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbo fontinalis Pulteney - Valvata piscinalis (Müller, 1774)

Turbo interruptus Adams - Rissoa parva (da Costa, 1778)

TTurbo interstinctus Adams in-Montagu - Parthenina interstinctus (Adams, 1797)

TTurbo jugosus Montagu - Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)

TTurbo laminatus Montagu - Cochlodina laminata (Montagu, 1803)

Turbo littoreus Linnaeus - Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbo muscorum Linnaeus - Pupilla muscorum (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbo obtusatus Linnaeus - Littorina littorea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Turbo parvus da Costa - Rissoa parva (da Costa, 1778)

Turbo pullus Linnaeus - Tricolia pullus (Linnaeus, 1758)

TTurbo punctura Montagu Alvania punctura (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo quadrifasciatus Montagu - Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803)

Turbo ruber Montagu not Adams - Barleeia unifasciata (Montagu, 1803)

Turbo rudis Donovan - Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)

Turbo sexdentatus Montagu - Vertigo pygmaea (Draparnaud, 1801)

TTurbo spiralis Montagu - Spiralinella spiralis (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo striatulus Montagu - Alvania carinata (da Costa, 1778)

Turbo striatus Adams 1797 sensu Montagu - Onoba semicostata Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo subtruncatus Montagu - Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1767)

TTurbo tenebrosus Montagu - Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)

TTurbo tenebrosus Montagu - Littorina saxatilis (Olivi, 1792)

Turbo terebra Linnaeus - Turritella communis Risso, 1827

TTurbo truncatus Montagu - Truncatella subcylindrica (Linnaeus, 1767)

Turbo ulvae Pennant - Peringia ulvae (Pennant, 1777)

TTurbo unicus Montagu - Graphis albida (Kanmacher, 1798)

TTurbo unidentatus Montagu - Odostomia unidentata (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo unifasciatus Montagu - Barleeia unifasciata (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo vinctus Montagu - Lacuna vincta (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo vitreus Montagu - Hyala vitrea (Montagu, 1803)

TTurbo zetlandicus Montagu - Alvania zetlandica (Montagu, 1816)

Turbo ziczac Gmelin - Echinolittorina ziczac (Gmelin, 1791)

Venus aurea Gmelin - Politapes aureus (Gmelin, 1791)

Venus chione Linnaeus - Callista chione (Linnaeus, 1758)

Venus compressa Montagu Astarte sulcata (da Costa, 1778)

Venus decussata Linnaeus - Ruditaptus decussatus (Linnaeus, 1758)

Venus dysera Gmelin - Chione cf. elevata Say, 1822

Venus exoleta Linnaeus - Dosinia exoleta (Linnaeus, 1758)

Venus granulata Gmelin - Leukoma granulata (Gmelin, 1791)

Venus guineensis Gmelin - Lamelliconcha circinata (Born, 1778)

Venus islandica Linnaeus - Arctica islandica (Linnaeus, 1767)

Venus laminosa Montagu - Chamelea striatula (da Costata, 1778)

Venus laminosa Montagu - Chamelea striatula (da Costata, 1778)

Venus laminosa Montagu - Chamelea striatula (da Costata, 1778)

TVenus minima Montagu - Gouldia minima (Montagu, 1803)

Venus ovata Pennant - Timoclea ovata (Pennant, 1777)

TVenus paphia Montagu - Timoclea ovata (Pennant, 1777)

TVenus perforans Montagu - Venerupis corrugata (Gmelin, 1791)

TVenus pullastra Montagu - Venerupis corrugata (Gmelin, 1791)

Venus scotica Maton & Rackett - Astarte sulcata (da Costa, 1778)

Venus striatula da Costa - Chamelea striatula (da Costa, 1778)

Venus tigerina Linnaeus - Codakia orbicularis (Linnaeus, 1785)

Venus triangularis Montagu Gouldia minima (Montagu, 1803)

Venus undata Pennant - Mysia undata (Pennant, 1777)

Venus verrucosa Linnaeus - Venus verrucosa Linnaeus, 1758

Venus virginea Linnaeus -Montagu

confused Politapes aurea and P. rhomboides

TVoluta bidentata Montagu - Auriculinella bidentata (Montagu, 1808)

TVoluta denticulata Montagu - Myosotella denticulata (Montagu, 1803)

Voluta pallida Linnaeus - Hyalina pallida Linnaeus, 1758

Voluta triplicata Donovan - Tralia ovula (Bruguière, 1789)

Unpublished - Littorina sp.

Unpublished (new No 3) - Otina ovata (Brown, 1827)

Unpublished - Botula fusca (Gmelin, 1791)

Unpublished - Epitonium turtonis (Turton, 1819)

Unpublished - Eulima sp.

Unpublished - Littoraria pintado (Wood, 1828)

Unpublished - Polinices sp.

Unpublished - Roxania utriculus (Brocchi, 1814)

Unpublished - Turbonilla lactea (Linnaeus, 1758)

Unpublished - Pholadidea loscombiana Turton, 1819

Unpublished - Epitonium principalis MS


The Montagu collection in RAMM was donated by Montagu’s son Henry d’Orville in 1874 and at that time the register numbering sequence started at 3639 and ended at 4537. Rosemary Brind who compiled the first list of types (1979) noted that numbers 4135 to 4537 were missing. Oliver et al. (2017) surmised that these shells may have been retained by JG Jeffreys but could provide no evidence. Relevant to this Harriet Wood of the National Museum of Wales has uncovered a letter from JRle B Tomlin to JD Dean written in 1935. Both Tomlin and Dean were interested in historic collections and Tomlin was prompted to visit Exeter to examine their collection. At this time Tomlin also noted the missing material and in his letter clearly suggests that this was lent to JG Jeffreys but never returned. Consequently some Montagu material should be present in the Smithsonian within the Jeffreys collection. As noted in our earlier paper recognising the provenance of lots in the Jeffreys collection is difficult, as the original labels have been removed. The relevant portion of this letter is reproduced here with a transcript. It seems clear now that the missing lots will not be found in RAMM.

“Some years ago, when I was in Exeter, I took the trouble to go thoroughly into the matter of the Montagu spp..-on what Jeffreys reported in J. of Conch. II, 1–4. Unluckily the shells were all sent to J. with the help of the Curator. I ran down the entry in their records of the sending of the parcel to Jeffreys (I think it was in 1878). But there is no record of their return: the old scoundrel pinched them + no doubt they are now in Washington. I looked carefully through their collection and none of the spp mentioned in J. C. are forthcoming. I think the matter ought to be taken up and restitution demanded from the U. S. Nat. Mus. If properly and courteously done I think the things would be returned”

The remaining collection is contained in 316 lots covering register numbers 3639–4134 but no longer representing the number of shells noted in the register and it would appear that many, especially of the smaller shells, have becomed dislodged from the mounts and lost, some time prior to 1979. The majority of the shells verified by Brind in 1979 are present. The number of type bearing lots is now 92.

Although Montagu continued to publish up to his untimely death our review suggests that he was still studying shells and recognizing species not included in his earlier works, such as Otina and Roxania.

We have examined 23 non-native species included by Montagu (1803, 1808) but not described by him. Most were reputedly collected from the south coast of England, mainly Dorset, and many by Mr Bryer although some were given by Pulteney, Boys and Laskey.These shells for the major part have been identied correctly suggesting that there was consistency between these early collectors. The underlying issue with the non-British shells included by Montagu is not their identity their provenance as discussed by Oliver et al. (2017). Although the source as ballast was considered by Oliver et al. (2017) it was the co-occurrence of species found on the south coast of England and in Scotland that gave rise to the suspicion that the shells were not found naturally. The species are exclusively from the Caribbean region and all but two represented by empty shells showing signs of being long dead. If there had been an underhand attempt to introduce exotic species then one might expect such shells to be from numerous localities and to be in good condition. The Caribbean (West Indian) origin fits well with the bulk of the trade during the late 18th century and given the number of ships lost at this time (Boult 2003) it may not be unreasonable to assume that access to the ballast of a wrecked ship could produce this assemblage of shells. Where suspicion still arises is the co-occurrence of these species reported from Scotland by Laskey (1811) and in Montagu’s (1808) list of North British Shells.

The lack of accuracy of records kept by collectors may also have added to our suspicions. For example Pulteney (1799) records Subulina octona from Weymouth but gives no details as to where. Weymouth is repeated by Miss Pocock for the shells sent to Lyons in Tenby and the shells collected by Dillwyn give only Bantry Bay as the locality. Nowhere is there any mention of this being a terrestrial species, typically found in hot houses. Once introduced into the British literature it would appear that such species were in demand by collectors and shells were then sourced but spuriously given the collection site as that of the original finding.

It must also be reminded that wooden shipping of the 18th century was a much different environment for possible translocation of organisms. The ships built up a much larger volume of fouling organisms enabling non-attached species such as snails to remain protected. This could explain how Montagu had two species of Caribbean littorinids with intact opercula in his collection.

The vast majority of Montagu’s determinations are accurate according to the literature of the time. Montagu is honest in his admissions of being uncertain about certain taxa e.g. his confusion with species of Thracia. Although the nomenclature is often mistaken and Montagu was prone to introducing new names for known species he seldom splits species on minute differences. The RAMM collection is however far from complete and lacks may of the minute marine and terrestrial species such as those in the families Pyramidellidae and Vertiginidae. In some cases the extant material does not conform with the description given such as Turbo sexdentatus where none of the shells have six teeth and do not conform with the current concept of being a junior synonm of Vertigo antivertigo. This indicates that caution must be used when considering the type status of specimens and questions how consistent Montagu was in his identifications especially of these smaller species.

Figure 54. 

Part of a letter from J R Le B Tomlin to J D Dean concerning the fate of part of the Montagu collection in RAMM, Exeter; dated 25/May/1935.


This project was largely funded by the John Ellerman Foundation, with a grant to the to the National Museum of Wales under the title “Great British Mollusca Types: A Union Database for the United Kingdom”.

Many inividuals have helped us with the identification of the shells in the Montagu collection:

Ruud Bank, Robert Cameron, Gene Coan, Marien Faber, Ian Killeen, Harry Lee, Jan Light, Beata Pokryszko, Peter Roopnarine, Ian Smith, John Taylor, Simon Taylor, Ben Rowson.

Finally we would like to thank the reviewers, Bram Breure and Paolo Albano for their thorough and helpful comments.


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