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Research Article
René Maugé’s ornithological collections from Kupang Bay, West-Timor, Indonesia, August-November 1801, with special regard to type-specimens
expand article infoJustin J. F. J. Jansen
‡ Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands
Open Access

Abstract

The French collector René Maugé (1757-1802) conducted some bird-collecting excursions when anchored in Kupang Bay, West-Timor during his time as part of the French government-funded expedition commanded by Nicolas Baudin (1754-1803). The expedition docked at Tenerife (Spanish Canary Islands), Mauritius, Australia, Timor and South Africa between 1800 and 1804. Maugé made the first collections in Timor. Specimens became dispersed after their arrival with the store-ship Le Naturaliste in Le Havre, France on 7 June 1803. Information concerning 153 specimens of 61 species was found in various documents and museums throughout Europe. Only the type-specimens are listed here and include data associated with them. Fifty-two species new to science were described from Maugé’s Timor collections, 28 of which are still taxonomically recognised today.

Key Words

Lesueur, Levillain, Péron, Birds, Timor, exploration

Introduction

The Governement supported expedition bound to Australia led by commander Nicolas Thomas Baudin (1754–1803), left Le Havre, France on 19 October 1800. The French Navy 20-gun Serpente-class corvette, Le Géographe, and the store-ship Le Naturaliste, were selected for the voyage, with focus on cartography and natural history. The expedition stopped at Tenerife, Mauritius and at various places in Western Australia (for example Geographe Bay and Shark Bay) before the first ship (Le Géographe) docked opposite Fort Concordia in the Bay of Kupang, West-Timor on 22 August 1801. Soon to be followed by the second ship (Le Naturaliste) at 21 September 1801, both remained here up to 13 November 1801 when both ships departed back to Australia (see for more information, Jansen 2014). After visiting for example Tasmania and Port Jackson (=Sydney), Le Géographe returned to Kupang between 6 May and 3 June 1803. Le Naturaliste returned to France at 7 June 1803 (French revolutionary calendar indicated as An XI) and Le Géographe at 24 March 1804 (French revolutionary calendar indicated as An XII). The revolutionary years can be found back on the specimens.

The designated bird-collectors and ‘scientists’ appointed by the Muséum Nationale d’Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (hereafter MNHN), were René Maugé and Stanislaus Levillain, later followed by Charles Alexandre Lesueur after Maugé and Levillain died. Other crew-members were involved with collecting, however, Maugé, Levillain and Lesueur can be accounted for the collecting in Timor.

The Baudin expedition was the first expedition with a focus on biological exploration in this part of West-Timor and the nearby island Semau. A few birds were collected by Caspar George Carl Reinwardt (1773–1854) in April 1821. Then followed by Salomon Müller in 1828–1829 (Mees 1976).

To the disappointment of the surviving crew no Governmental interest was shown after arrival. The deserters, as the crew-members who had fall-outs with Baudin (who died at Mauritius on 16 September 1803), and when back in France they described him as an incompetent and authoritarian leader. François Péron (1775–1810) and Louis Claude de Saulces de Freycinet (1779–1841) took on the official expedition narrative, and – for example - Baudin was written out of large parts as landmarks were renamed (Péron 1807a, b, 1811, 1815, 1816).

There are no original lists available of the birds collected in Timor, nor are there any publications on Timor, on the 200+ specimens supposedly collected in Timor (MNHN, Bibliothèque centrale, Ms 2126, lettre 4, 5 October 1801). A considerable number of specimens was dispersed over several schools, museums and private collectors. As part of on-going research into the Baudin expedition, all possible leads were followed up (Jansen 2014, 2016, 2017b), the Timorese part being published here.

Maugé, Lesueur and Levillain

René Maugé was born in 1757 in Cély-en-Bière, in the Seine-et-Marne department near Paris, France. Nothing is known of his life prior to May 1794. In that month, he started work at the MNHN, learning taxidermy and studying natural history (Jangoux 2009: 30). Maugé was trained by Louis Dufresne (1752–1832) who taught him to skin birds properly. Aged 39, he joined the first government-funded expedition captained by Nicolas Baudin towards Tenerife, St. Thomas, St. Croix and Puerto Rico (1796–1798) (Jangoux 2009: 30). The voyage was a success and 296 bird specimens collected by Maugé were brought back; 140+ specimens still survive (Jansen and Fuchs 2017). Aged 42, (Horner 1987: 400) he again left with Baudin on a voyage to Tenerife, Mauritius, Australia and Timor with the corvette Le Géographe and the store-ship Le Naturaliste which left Le Havre on 19 October 1800. Maugé was appointed by Antoine-Laurent de Jussieu, director of the MNHN, as one of the official expedition zoologists.

Little is known how far the expedition ventured into the interior of West-Timor during its visit between 22 August and 13 November 1801, but apparently not far (as only daytrips are noted). However, it is known that Maugé lived in a house in Kupang for a while with fellow naturalists including François Péron (Duyker 2006: 96). He went on excursions into the countryside around Kupang with Charles-Alexandre Lesueur, Pierre-François Bernier and Louis Depuch and returned with ‘rich’ collections on 26 August 1801 (Péron 1807a: 147). On 29 August, he joined Lesueur, Depuch and Anselme Riedlé on a reconnaissance of the hinterlands, presumably collecting as they went (Péron 1807a: 151). Maugé is recorded as having attended a dinner with Baudin on 31 August (Baudin 1974: 263–264), but by 15 September, Maugé was seriously ill with scurvy (Péron 1807a: 171). He died on board the Le Géographe when it was off the coast of Tasmania on 20 February 1802. He was buried on Maria Island (Baudin 1974: 340).

Maugé is often acknowledged as collector on the pedestal undersides, if not mentioned in the descriptive texts by Lesson and Vieillot. Baudin (Bonnemains et al. 1988: 398) mentions that Maugé collected and prepared 300 birds in his summary of activities on Timor. This differs from the letter sent by Baudin on 5 October 1801, to Jussieu (MNHN, Bibliothèque centrale, Ms 2126, lettre 4, 5 October 1801), in here he mentions more than 200 specimens including many new species for science.

Charles Alexandre Lesueur was born on 1 January 1778, in Le Havre, Seine-Maritime, France. At the age of 22, he left France with Le Géographe, ranked as assistant gunner 4th class. He is not specifically mentioned in the various diaries as a bird-collector. However, he did go out collecting with Maugé on Timor on 26 and 29 August. He was hunting ‘macaques’ and maybe also birds (Péron 1809: 130, Brown and Flannery 2008: 156). He collected birds either alone or in the company of Maugé in the weeks before 22 August and 15 September. That he was unofficially known as a bird-collector was demonstrated when Le Géographe returned to Timor around 6 May 1803 and Lesueur was recognised by the locals as orang mati bourou (the bird-killer man) (Péron 1807b: 257, Duyker 2006: 194). Lesueur is also acknowledged as the collector by those describing new species such as Ardea timoriensis (Cuvier in Lesson 1831) (but see later). Lesueur arrived back safely in France after the expedition and went on to collect in the U.S.A. and other countries for several years before his death on 12 December 1846.

Stanislaus Levillain (1774–1801) was appointed by Jussieu as a zoologist to the expedition. Levillain also joined Baudin and Maugé on the Caribbean voyage between 1796 and 1798. He actively collected birds when sailing and landing with Le Naturaliste and some of his specimens are still present in the MNHN. Péron stated he was in perfect health when he settled in with him and other naturalists shortly after the arrival of Le Naturaliste on 21 September at Kupang (Péron 1807a: 167), and may well have collected in the first few days after arrival in Kupang, as he soon became ill. He died at sea when the expedition was travelling from Timor to Tasmania, on 29 December 1801.

Timorese bird-specimens collected by Maugé and his colleagues

Collecting location

In ascertaining or clarifying the collecting locality, I considered the available diaries kept by Baudin 1974, the Levillain Diary (Archives Nationales, série Muséum AJ/15/590) and other diaries, official reports (Péron 1807a, b, 1809), collectors’ notes (Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Le Havre no 08040, 21001, 21002, 21003, 79055–79127) and the localities within the known range of the taxon. The available information from Timor, e.g. information available from the official narrative of the voyage, mentions a day excursion at 26 August 1801 (Péron 1807a: 147) and 29 August 1801 (Péron 1807a: 151), further information on bird collecting activities could not be found by author. The expedition made no large journey’s outside of Kupang during their first stay, and remained restricted to its vicinity.

With the available information on the pedestal underside (see below), the printed (glued on the pedestal) substitute label (added well after the 1850’s), registration books and documents available in Le Havre, it was established that all birds from Timor were only collected during the first visit (most are documented with An XI = arrival with Le Naturaliste (visited only once Timor)). The best proof of this is that Péron kept track of the specimens during the second leg of the voyage and no specimens were entered during the second Timor visit (Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Le Havre no 21001).

Taken in account article 76a (ICZN 1999) we find unfortunately, no original notes (e.g. labels), no collector’s notes, no personal communications. For the original description see chapter available information from the specimen. So, we only have the itinerary and the expedition’s narrative (Péron 1807a), that discusses two day trips collecting birds near Kupang (article 76A.1.3 (ICZN 1999)). So, summarizing, birds were only collected during the first stay at Timor in 1801 and birds were collected near Kupang Bay.

Arrival in France

All birds collected by Maugé arrived on Le Naturaliste in Le Havre, France in one shipment on 7 June 1803. The collection subsequently arrived at the MNHN in the week of 13–20 July 1803 (Jansen 2016). The Timor collections contained 153 specimens (61 species) and became - for a part - dispersed throughout France and Europe. All specimens from the expedition were the property of the French nation and no signs were found of specimens being taken home by members of the crew. Not all specimens, however, were registered and part of the collection was only roughly identified in the then known bird-families (Jansen 2016). Comprehensive information on the MNHN birds only found its way into the registration books around 1854, more than 50 years after the expedition returned to France (ZMO-GalOis 1-5).

Specimens returned as skin and were subsequently mounted for the museum showcases. No original tags or collecting lists are known to have been brought back to France (Jansen 2015).

Available information from the specimen

Péron did not only change names given to the various places on the Australian coast but also altered later in works the collectors of the specific specimens (Fornaseiro et al. 2016). Labels were substituted by Péron for other groups then birds (Jangoux 2005: 5, Duyker 2006: 124), and he and Lesueur were designated as their collectors. For birds, no original labels are known, nor found. But as indicated by mentioning Levillain and Maugé as their collectors, some sort of documentation had to be present in Paris by then.

The specimen information available, part communicated by Péron (and possibly also by Lesueur) personally to the taxidermists, is situated on the pedestal underside, registration books and documents (for example those kept in Le Havre 79054–79127, see Jansen 2016, 2017b). Information on the pedestal undersides was added after mounting the specimens in Paris. Mounting the specimens was executed by the museum’s senior taxidermist Louis Dufresne (1752–1832). Other taxidermists like Michel Adrie Lalande, M Bécouer, M. Desmouslin, M. Perefile, M. Charpeutir and M. le Roy were also involved and Dufresne’s wife. Recognisable is the handwriting from Dufresne on most specimens, in special those containing stickers and those mention his close friend René Maugé. We find for example on the sample of 69 Timorese MNHN type-specimens, names for collectors, ranging from Maugé (37), Exp. Baudin (9), Péron (2), Péron et Lesueur (4), Lesueur (2) and 15 have a sticker glued on (and hold Maugé as their collector (so 75 % are collected by Maugé)). The stickers were glued to the specimens on Le Naturaliste specimens directly after mounting (Jansen 2016).

Two of the scientists who survived the expedition, François Péron and Charles Alexandre Lesueur, provided extra information to senior taxidermist, Louis Dufresne, and other MNHN taxidermists. This information was mostly scribbled on the pedestal undersides, but is not available for all specimens. Due to a personal feud (scientific and personal business) between Péron and Baudin, the original collector names have largely disappeared (Fornaseiro et al. 2016: 47–48). The birds that contained Péron and Péron et Lesueur as collector were in another hand, and part of the ‘corrections’ as executed by Péron. Only one note (by Péron) exists, on six bird species from the first Timor visit: Grey-tailed Tattler Tringa brevipes, Australian Pratincole Stiltia isabella, Rainbow Bee-eater Merops ornatus, Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis bengalensis, Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus chloris and Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher Todiramphus australasia (Le Havre 79125).

Therefore, I designated in this paper–and therefore correcting this fraud–all specimens as collected by Maugé, despite the mention in the original type-description of Lesueur and Péron as its collectors.

Scientific names

The 52 scientific names published between 1807 and 1855 were executed by Charles Lucien Bonaparte (1), George Cuvier (3), René Primevère Lesson (10), Coenraad Jacob Temminck (10), Louis Pierre Vieillot (25), Johann Georg Wagler (2) and William John Swainson (1). All of them visited the MNHN and some scientists mentioning the MNHN explicitly as source in the type-descriptions.

Other collectors

In 1829, the second collection from Timor arrived in Europe, collected by Salomon Müller employed by the Rijksmuseum of Natuurlijke Historie Leiden (now Naturalis). Müller, collected 178 species (196 specimens) in West-Timor and 14 species (16 specimens) at Semau. The number of type-species is 46 (van den Hoek Ostende et al. 1997, Dekker 2003, Dekker and Quaisser 2006).

Descriptions prior to 1829 are exclusively birds collected on the Baudin expedition. Lesson and Vieillot worked only in the MNHN and always mentioned if information was obtained from another collection. Temminck also often worked in the MNHN (van Lynden-de Bruïne 2001) and obtained a fair number of Baudin expedition birds for his private collection (Jansen 2017b). Louis Dufresne, the MNHN senior taxidermist, also had a large private collection of specimens which mostly had a MNHN origin. By 1818, his collection had been sold to the National Museum of Scotland (hereafter NMS), Edinburg, Scotland (Sweet 1970, Cheke and Jansen 2016). The descriptions by Vieillot were executed largely before 1816 and formed part of the publication of the first part of ‘Dictionnaire d‘histoire naturelle’ (1816–1819). The first part appearing in September 1816 (Mathews 1911). The Baudin birds sent to the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien (hereafter NMW), Vienna, Austria as part of the ‘Final Act’ of the Congress of Vienna in 1815 (Daszkiewicz and Bauer 2003, Bauer and Wagner 2012) also included specimens that Vieillot had examined.

Number of surviving specimens

Today, the largest batch of the surviving 395 specimens, from the original 1,055 specimens from the Baudin expedition, is housed in the MNHN. The Timor specimens have received some evaluation in the past (Hellmayr 1914, 1916) and in recent years the type-specimens have been steadily catalogued (Voisin and Voisin 1996, 1999, 2001, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2015, Voisin et al. 2004, 2005, 2008). During research for this paper specimens collected by Maugé were in various collections throughout Europe. The museums which were visited are: Musée Boucher-de-Perthes, Abbeville, France, Muséum Nationale d‘Histoire Naturelle, Paris, France (MNHN), Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands (Naturalis or RMNH), the National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland (NMS) and the Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria (NMW). Email communication was conducted with: Muséum d‘histoire naturelle - Ville de Blois, Blois; the National Museum of Natural History, Washington D.C., USA (USNM) and Muséum-Aquarium de Nancy, Nancy, France. Two collections that also housed Baudin specimens were l’Hôtel de Ville de Rouen, Rouen, France and Lycée de Moulins, Moulins, France, both unfortunately destroyed. Findings are noted in Table 1.

List of bird specimens (skins) collected by René Maugé in Timor. Names of abbreviations: NMS = National Museum of Scotland, Edinburg, Scotland; NMW = Naturhistorisches Museum Wien, Vienna, Austria; MNHN = Muséum national d’Histoire naturelle, Paris, France; RMNH = Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands. Abbeville, Nancy, Rouen, Moulins and Washington are other collections were specimens arrived.

Species Lat. Name Reg. Number Present specimens Lost Not found
Asian Blue Quail Synoicus c. chinensis MNHN-ZO-2014-467, MNHN-ZO-2014-468 Brogniart / Thouin, Rouen
Sunda Collared Dove Streptopelia bitorquata MNHN-ZO-MO-2002-536
Barred Dove Geopelia maugeus MNHN-ZO-MO-2002-525, MNHN-ZO-MO-2002-526 NMS
Brown-capped Emerald Dove Chalcophaps indica timorensis MNHN-ZO-2011-593, Muséum-Aquarium de Nancy 2012.0.50
Timor Green Pigeon Treron psittaceus MNHN-ZO-2014-454, NMW 65.863 NMS
Rose-crowned Fruit-dove Ptilinopus regina flavicollis MNHN-ZO-2005-2539, MNHN-ZO-MO-2002-128, NMW 48.251
Savanna Nightjar Caprimulgus affinis timorensis MNHN-ZO-2014-420, MNHN-ZO-2014-421
Glossy Swiftlet Collocalia esculenta neglecta MNHN-ZO-2014-428 NMS
Pallid Cuckoo Heteroscenes pallidus MNHN-ZO-MO-1997-1224, MNHN-ZO-2014-426
Oriental Cuckoo Cuculus saturatus Unknown (Lesson 1830: 147)
Dusky Moorhen Gallinula tenebrosa frontata Washington (sent in 1935 now absent)
Black Bittern Ixobrychus flavicollis australis MNHN-ZO-MO-1995-244
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis coromandus MNHN A.C. 13939
Great White Egret Ardea alba modesta Unknown (Cuvier in Lesson 1831: 575)
Great Frigatebird Fregata m. minor MNHN-ZO-2014-476
Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva MNHN-ZO-2014-472
Masked Lapwing Vanellus miles MNHN-ZO-2014-471 Rouen
Comb-crested Jacana Irediparra gallinacea Rouen
Grey-tailed Tattler Tringa brevipes MNHN-ZO-2012-155
Red-backed Buttonquail Turnix maculosus MNHN-ZO-MO-2001-543, RMNH.AVES.87.424
Australian Pratincole Stiltia isabella MNHN-ZO-2012-162, MNHN-ZO-2014-453, RMNH.AVES.87.567
Southern Boobook Ninox boobook fusca MNHN-ZO-2010-277
Brown Goshawk Accipiter fasciatus MNHN-ZO-MO-1999-2128, MNHN-ZO-MO-1999-2129
Rainbow Bee-eater Merops ornatus MNHN-ZO-2014-423, MNHN-ZO-2014-424, NMW 50.823 Brogniart / Thouin, Moulins, NMS
Common Kingfisher Alcedo atthis bengalensis MNHN-ZO-2014-417
Collared Kingfisher Todiramphus c. chloris MNHN-ZO-2014-415 Blois
Sacred Kingfisher Todiramphus s. sanctus MNHN-ZO-2014-416 MNHN A.C. 3465
Cinnamon-banded Kingfisher Todiramphus australasia MNHN A.C. 3488, Abbeville
Spotted Kestrel Falco moluccensis MNHN-ZO-2014-462
Marigold Lorikeet Trichoglossus capistratus Muséum-Aquarium de Nancy 2013.0.69 NMS (3), NMW (2) MNHN A.C. 1625
Jonquil Parrot Aprosmictus jonquillaceus MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-97, MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-104, NMS_Z 1929.186.12
Red-cheeked Parrot Geoffroyus geoffroyi MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-93, MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-102, NMW 50.149, NMW 50.150 Naturalis
Flame-eared Honeyeater Lichmera flavicans MNHN-ZO-2010-462, MNHN-ZO-2010-463
Helmeted Friarbird Philemon buceroides MNHN-ZO-2010-472 NMS
Streaky-breasted Honeyeater Meliphaga reticulatus MNHN-ZO-2010-450, MNHN-ZO-2010-451, NMW 35.339
Timor Figbird Sphecotheres viridis MNHN-ZO-2012-677, MNHN-ZO-2012-680, MNHN-ZO-2012-681, MNHN-ZO-2012-698, NMW 52.648 NMS Naturalis
Timor Oriole Oriolus melanotis MNHN-ZO-2011-602, MNHN-ZO-2014-477
Golden Whistler Pachycephala pectoralis calliope MNHN-ZO-2011-598, MNHN-ZO-2014-488
Wallacean Cuckooshrike Coracina personata MNHN-ZO-2014-483, NMW 5.206
White-shouldered Triller Lalage sueurii MNHN-ZO-2012-674, MNHN-ZO-2012-683
Black-faced Woodswallow Artamus cinereus perspicillatus MNHN-ZO-2010-488, MNHN-ZO-2010-489, NMS_Z 1929.186.134, RMNH.AVES.90.493
White-breasted Woodswallow Artamus leucorynchus albiventer MNHN-ZO-2014-514, MNHN-ZO-2016-524, NMW 5.464, NMW 70.486
Timor Fantail Rhipidura rufiventris MNHN-ZO-2013-1149, MNHN-ZO-2013-1156
Wallacean Drongo Dicrurus densus MNHN A.C. 9755, NMS_Z 1819.1.3
Broad-billed Flycatcher Myiagra ruficollis MNHN-ZO-2014-525, NMS_Z 1819.20.1.67
Red-chested Flowerpecker Dicaeum maugei MNHN-ZO-2012-633
Ashy-bellied White-eye Zosterops citrinella MNHN-ZO-2014-446
Common Myna Acridotheres t. tristis Unknown (illustrated by Lesueur)
Short-tailed Starling Aplonis minor MNHN-ZO-2011-594, MNHN-ZO-2015-71, RMNH.AVES.90.406
Orange-sided Thrush Geokichla peronii MNHN-ZO-2013-1103, MNHN-ZO-2013-1105, NMW 13.310 Rouen
Timor Blue Flycatcher Cyornis hyacinthinus MNHN-ZO-2013-1136, MNHN-ZO-2013-1138 NMS
Pied Bush Chat Saxicola caprata pyrrhonota MNHN A.C. 9127 MNHN A.C. 9128, NMS
White-bellied Bush Chat Saxicola gutturalis MNHN-ZO-2011-595, MNHN-ZO-2013-1118, NMS_Z 1819.1.41, NMW 12.359
Flame-breasted Sunbird Cinnyris solaris MNHN-ZO-2014-530, MNHN-ZO-2014-531
Black-faced Munia Lonchura molucca MNHN-ZO-2014-502, MNHN-ZO-2014-503
Scaly-breasted Munia Lonchura punctulata particeps MNHN-ZO-2014-504, MNHN-ZO-2014-505 NMS, NMW
Five-coloured Munia Lonchura quinticolor MNHN-ZO-2014-500, MNHN-ZO-2014-501, NMW 35569 Naturalis
Pale-headed Munia Lonchura pallida MNHN-ZO-2014-499 MNHN A.C. 6495
Timor Sparrow Lonchura fuscata MNHN A.C. 6490, MNHN A.C. 6491, MNHN-ZO-2011-597, NMW 35.570 NMS
Timor Zebra Finch Taeniopygia guttata MNHN-ZO-2014-506, MNHN-ZO-2014-507, MNHN-ZO-2014-508, MNHN-ZO-2014-510, NMW 52.401 NMS (2)
Tricolored Parrotfinch Erythrura tricolor MNHN-ZO-2014-509

List of type-specimens collected by Maugé on Timor

The following list summarizes the information on specimens collected in Timor during the Baudin expedition (1800–1804). The taxonomical order and current names are those according to del Hoyo and Collar (2014, 2016).

The catalogue is structured as follows:

Protonym (original spelling ICZN 1999 art. 31.1.3.)

Author and year of publication

Publication + page (abbreviation)

Type locality (as in the original description)

Valid scientific name + Author

Publication (reference to (type-) publications and corrections of type locality and collector).

Type status

Registration-number (current and old)

Sex / age

Collecting locality

Date

Collector

Information on Pedestal underside and Pedestal label

The type locality has been fixed for all available type specimens to date to the exact collecting locality (article 76 in ICZM 1999).

Coturnix excalfactoria Temminck

Coturnix excalfactoria Temminck, 1815, Hist. nat. Gen. des Pig. Liv. 3 – 516 (Batavia, Timor, Moluques, Manilla, Luçon, China, Sumatra).

Synoicus chinensis chinensis (Linnaeus 1766). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-468 [MNHN A.C. 12653], adult female, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal Underside: 1 -- (Sticker) Asie Australe Cvte Le Natte / Expedit. du Captne Baudin / an 11 / 115 / (illegible). 2. -- Coturnix excalfactoria / ♀ Tem / Tet. Chinensis L. / Perd. Chinensis / P. Manillensis Lath. / Excalfactoria chinensis / Timor / 12653 / 417 / (illegible) T. manillensis. Pedestal label: Excalfactoria chinensis / (L.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-467 [MNHN A.C. 12647], adult male, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: No 171 Péron Maugé / Cap Baudin / an 11 / Le Naturaliste / 12647 / Excalfactoria chinensis / Timor / Coturnix chinensis Lath. Pedestal label: Excalfactoria chinensis / (L.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

Many individuals were examined by Temminck, including birds from Batavia (Java), Moluccas, Timor, Manilla, Luçon and from China. The Timorese specimens were catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4), and for a long time represented the sole specimens in MNHN, to be followed by a bird from Batavia by Pierre-Médard Diard which arrived in 1821. One of the type localities (Timor), is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck named this species excalfactoria or ‘warming, heating’ (Jobling 2017).

Columba bitorquata Temminck

Columba bitorquata Temminck, 1809, Hist. nat. Gen. des Pig. Liv. 86: pl. 40 (l’Inde).

Streptopelia bitorquata (Temminck 1809). See Hellmayr 1914: 91 and Voisin et al. 2005: 850–851. – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2002-536 [MNHN A.C. 11464], adult, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Australia / L. Naturaliste. / Cap. Baudin / M. Maugé / 11464 Type / Turtur bitorquata / Tem. Pedestal label: Turtur bitorquatus / (Tem.) / Type / M. Maugé Timor.

Comments

In the original description Temminck mentioned that it was described from a single specimen. This specimen was catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represented the sole specimen in the MNHN for a long time. It was followed by a bird from Sumatra collected by Pierre-Médard Diard and subsequently donated to the MNHN in 1821. This Baudin expedition bird arrived with Le Naturaliste in Le Havre, France on 7 June 1803 and subsequently entered the MNHN in the week of 13–20 July 1803 (Jansen 2016). The type locality is erroneous (l’Inde), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck named this species bitorquata or ‘double-banded’ (Jobling 2017).

Columba Maugei Temminck

Columba Maugei Temminck, 1809, Hist. nat. Gen. des Pig. Liv. 115: pl. 52 (Iles de I’Australe-Asie).

Geopelia maugeus (Temminck, 1809). See Lesson 1831: 474, Wagler 1827 (Columba no 105), Peters 1937: 101 and Voisin et al. 2005: 852–853. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2002-525 [MNHN A.C. 11721], adult male, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Cap.ne / Baudin / M. Maugé / an 11 / 11721 / Geopelia Maugei / Tem. Type. Pedestal label: Geopelia Maugei / (Tem.) / Type / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2002-526 [MNHN A.C. 11722], adult, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Cap / Baudin / an 12 / M. Maugé / 11722 / Geopelia Maugei / Tem. / Type. Pedestal label: Geopelia maugei / (Tem.) / Type / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE (lost): The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 80: Columba maugaeus, La Colombe Maugé, Tk. Pl. 52, des Isles del’ Austr. Asie. Not found in 2016–2017 (Bob McGowan in litt.).

Comments

Two individuals in the MNHN are mentioned in the original description by Temminck and one in the possession of Louis Dufresne. The bird, as mentioned by Dufresne in the manuscript catalogue (1818: 80), is no longer present in the NMS. The MNHN specimens were catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represented the only specimens in MNHN for a long time. They were followed by one specimen collected on the Voyage of l’Astrolabe (1822–1825). The type locality is erroneous (Iles de I’Australe-Asie), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). The second part of the species’ Latin name commemorates its collector.

Columba Psittacea Temminck

Columba Psittacea Temminck, 1808, Hist. nat. Gen. des Pig. Liv. 28, pl. 4 (Timor, Java).

Treron psittaceus (Temminck, 1808). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-454 [MNHN A.C. 11138], adult male, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / M. Maugé / Exp. Capne Baudin / an 11 / 11138 / Treron psittacea / Tem. Pedestal label: Treron psittacea / (Tem.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: NMW 65.863 [NMW 1815.XXXVII.16], male, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal label: n. 129 C. psittacea Temminck / tab. 4 / Columbar unicolor / XXXVII 16 / aus Paris 1815 gekauft Dufresne / 118.

SYNTYPE (lost): The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 79: Columba psittacea, Le Colombar unicolor, Tem. K. hist. des Fig. P. 4, Isle de Timor. Not found in 2016–2017 (Bob McGowan in litt.).

Comments

Temminck examined more than 30 birds in various collections, including specimens from the island of Timor as well as Java, as stated in the original description. The MNHN specimen was catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represented the sole specimen in the MNHN for a long time. It was followed by two birds collected on Java by Pierre-Médard Diard in 1821. It is interesting to note that it is absent in the type catalogue published by van den Hoek Ostende et al. 1997, Voisin et al. 2004, 2005 and Schifter et al. 2007. It is notable that the types were not mentioned by Schlegel (1873: 59), as he mentions only the presence of two skins and one skeleton collected in May 1829 in Timor by Salomon Müller, no Javan specimens. The type locality for the Timor birds is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck named this species psittacea or ‘parrot’ (Jobling 2017).

Ptilinopus flavicollis Bonaparte

Ptilinopus flavicollis Bonaparte, 1855, Consp. Gen. Avium 2: 20 (Timor).

Ptilinopus regina flavicollis (Bonaparte, 1855). See Lesson 1831: 472 (under the name Columba purpurata), Voisin et al. 2004: 116 and Voisin et al. 2008: 775–776. – Now.

Type materials

PARALECTOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2002-128 [MNHN A.C. 11201], adult, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: 1. Timor / M. Maugé / Exp. d. la Découverte / an 12 / 11.209 / Ptilopus Ewingii / Gould. 2. =11201 [added with blue pen]. Pedestal label: Ptilopus Ewingii / (Gould.) / Exp. Baudin Timor. (added with pen) Type de Pt. flavicollis / Bp.

PARALECTOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2005-2539 [MNHN A.C. 11199], adult, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / M. Maugé / Exp. de la Découverte / an 12 / 11.199 / Ptilopus Ewingii / Gould / Type de Ch. Bp. Pedestal label: Ptilopus Ewingii / (Gould.) / Exp. Baudin Timor; added with pen: Type de Pt. flavicollis / Bp.

Comments

Bonaparte explicitly stated that he described this taxon from specimens in the British Museum and Paris. The MNHN specimens were catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represented the only specimens in the MNHN for a long time. They were followed by one specimen collected on the L’Uranie voyage between 1817–1820 and donated by Louis Freycinet in 1820. Two birds from Charles Lucien Jules Laurent Bonaparte’s collection arrived in 1858. The bird collected on the Baudin expedition, and now housed in NMW, was donated in 1815 but was not studied by Bonaparte and has no type status (NMW 48.251). Only one bird was selected as syntype by Voisin et al. 2004: 116 but this was corrected by Voisin et al. 2008: 775–776, designating MNHN-ZO-2005-2539 as paralectotype. Warren (1966: 98) named BMNH 1842.1.19.4 as the holotype, and inadvertently made a lectotype designation. The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Bonaparte named this species flavicollis or ‘yellow-necked’ (Jobling 2017).

Note

measurements of 122 and 126 mm (average of both wings) were taken from both MNHN specimens and are outside the range of 104–119 mm as described in Gibbs et al. 2001: 486. It is important to measure the BMNH lectotype as well, as that could have repercussions for applying the name flavicollis. More research is needed to establish which taxon is involved.

Cuculus variegatus Vieillot

Cuculus variegatus Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 8: 224 (Australasie).

Heteroscenes pallidus (Latham, 1801). See Mathews 1913: 154, Hellmayr 1916: 110 and Voisin and Voisin 1999: 392. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-1997-1224 [MNHN A.C. 1954], immature, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / M. Maugé / 1954 / Cacomantis pallidus / Lath. / Cacomantis variegatus / Vieill. Type. Pedestal label: Cacomantis pallidus / Lath, / M. Maugé / Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-426 [MNHN A.C. 1956], immature, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / M. Maugé / 1956 / Cacomantis pallidus / Lath. Pedestal label: Cacomantis pallidus / (Lath.) / M. Maugé Timor.

Comments

Vieillot does not mention the number of birds examined, but his description mentions both adults and immature birds, so clearly more birds were involved. He also does not mention which collection were used, but as most of the birds he examined for his contributions to the Nouveau Dictionnaire d’Histoire Naturelle (1816–19) were housed in the MNHN, it can safely be assumed that this is where he made his description. The MNHN specimens were catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 1) and were the only specimens in the MNHN for a long time. They were followed by a bird collected on the L’Uranie voyage captained by Louis de Freycinet (1817–1820). The type locality is erroneous (Australasie), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species variegatus or ‘variegated’ (Jobling 2017).

Cuculus tenuirostris Lesson

Cuculus tenuirostris Lesson, 1830, Traité d’Orn. 3: 146–147 (Bengale and Timor).

Cuculus saturatus (Blyth, 1843). – Now.

Type materials

‘type’ (lost): Relevant line in the type description: Coucou tenuirostre; Cuculus tenuirostris, Mus. de Paris. Variété de Timor. Habite le Bengale (Duvaucel) et Timor (Maugé).

Comments

In the registration book drafted around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 1) two birds were noted, one collected in 1822 in Bengale and one from the same location from Duvaucel from 1823. So clearly the specimen from Maugé left the MNHN before 1854. Lesson named this species tenuirostris or ‘Slender billed’ (Jobling 2017). A solution for this special case, should be found in the future (e.g. type-specimen and type-locality).

Ardea australis Cuvier

Ardea australis Cuvier, 1831, in Lesson, Traité d’Orn. 8: 572 (no locality).

Ixobrychus flavicollis australis (Cuvier 1831). See Peters 1931: 123 and Voisin and Voisin 1996: 605. – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-1995-244 [MNHN A.C. 13960], immature, collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Exp. Baudin / Ardea flavicollis (Lath.) / A. australis (Cuv.) type / Exp Baudin / 13960 N.C. No 219. Pedestal label: no longer present.

Comments

Lesson did not mention the number of specimens examined from the Baudin expedition. The MNHN specimen was catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 5) and represented the sole specimen in the MNHN for a long time. It was followed by two birds collected on Java by Labillardière between 1794–1796 and donated to the museum in 1817. The latter two birds are the syntypes of Ardea bilineata Cuvier in Lesson, 1831 (Voisin and Voisin 1996: 604, who designated MNHN-ZO-MO1992-242 as the lectotype). The type locality is lacking and added as: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Cuvier named this species australis or ‘southern’ (Jobling 2017).

Ardea timoriensis Cuvier

Ardea timoriensis Cuvier, 1831, in Lesson 1831, Traité d’Orn. 8: 575 (Timor).

Ardea alba modesta (J. E. Gray, 1831). See Lesson 1831: 575. – Now.

Type materials

‘type’ (lost). At least one specimen was collected near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E) between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé (Lesson 1831: 575).

Comments

Cuvier did not mention how many specimens he examined for his description. He did mention, however, that it originated from Timor with Lesueur as the source. It could not be traced in the MNHN acquisition books and neither was timoriensis registered. It can therefore be concluded that the Baudin expedition bird left the MNHN before 1854. Cuvier named this species timoriensis or ‘from Timor, Dutch East Indies’ (Jobling 2017). A solution for this special case should be found in the future (e.g. type-specimen and type-locality).

Vanellus gallinaceus Lesson

Vanellus gallinaceus Lesson, 1831, Traité d’Orn. 7: 542 (Timor).

Vanellus miles (Boddaert, 1783). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-471 [MNHN A.C. 13015], immature female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie Aust. Cte Le Natte. / Expedit. du Captne Baudin / an 11 / Timor – Maugé. (Sticker 2) (large part crossed and illegible) / Van gallinaceum / Jard. Et Selb / pl. 24 / (illegible) gallinace / Vanellus gallinaceus Tem. / Ch. Gallinaceus / Wagl. / Timor. Pedestal label: Vanneau gallinace / Vanellus gallinaceus, Jard. Et Selb. / Chetusia gallinacean, G.R. Gr. / Charadrius gallinaecueus, Wagl. / de Timor, par Maugé.

Comments

Lesson did not mention how many individuals he examined. Reference is made by Lesson that the type locality was Timor and the collector Maugé. The MNHN Maugé specimen was catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represents the sole specimen of this species. The bird sent from the MNHN to Rouen on 23 April 1806 (Muséum d’histoire Naturelle, Le Havre no 21111, 21114) was not examined by Lesson. In the night of 30–31 December 1926, the collection was burned (Bénédicte Percheron in litt. 28 December 2016, and Thierry Kermanach in litt. 28 February 2017). The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Lesson named this species gallinaceus or ‘hen, or hens’ (Jobling 2017).

Totanus brevipes Vieillot

Totanus brevipes Vieillot, 1816, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 6: 410 (no locality).

Tringa brevipes (Vieillot, 1816). See Cuvier 1829: 521 (note 2), Lesson 1831: 552, Pucheran 1851: 370–371, Peters 1931: 270 and Voisin and Voisin 2012: 45. – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-155 [MNHN A.C. 13377], adult in summer-plumage, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie Aust. Cte le Natte / Expedit. du Capitne Baudin / an 11 / Timor p. Mgé / T. brevipes Cuv. (type). Pedestal label: Le Chevalier aux pieds courts / Tringa brevipes. Cuv. / de Timor: par Maugé.

Comments

Vieillot referred to a mounted bird. The MNHN specimen was catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represented the sole specimen of this species until 1856 when a specimen collected by Constantin de Sabir in the Amur region was added to the collection. The holotype also represents the only surviving / located syntype of Totanus pedestris Lesson 1831 (see below). The type locality is lacking and clarified as: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species brevipes or ‘short foot’ (Jobling 2017).

Totanus pedestris Lesson

Totanus pedestris Lesson, 1831, Traité d’Orn. 7: 552 (Mariannes, Timor).

Tringa brevipes (Vieillot, 1816). –Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-155 [MNHN A.C. 13377], adult in summer-plumage, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie Aust. Cte le Natte / Expedit. du Capitne Baudin / an 11 / Timor p. Mgé / T. brevipes Cuv. (type). Pedestal label: Le Chevalier aux pieds courts / Tringa brevipes. Cuv. / de Timor: par Maugé.

Comments

Lesson referred to (a) bird(s) from the Marianas (Quoy and Gaimard), an additional one from the Marianas and the bird from the Baudin expedition. Lesson aged the Maugé bird incorrectly as a young bird. The MNHN specimen was catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represents the sole specimen of this species until 1856 when a specimen collected by Constantin de Sabir in the Amur region was added to the collection. The syntype listed here also serves as the holotype of Totanus brevipes Vieillot 1816, for comments see above. The type locality of the Timor bird is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species pedestris or ‘foot’.

Hemipodius maculosus Temminck

Hemipodius maculosus Temminck, 1815, Hist. Nat. Gen. Pigeons Gallinaces 3: 631, 757 (le continent de la Nouvelle-Hollande).

Turnix maculosus (Temminck, 1815). See Peters 1934: 144, van den Hoek Ostende et al. 1997: 53 and Voisin and Voisin 2015: 54 and 57. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2001-543 [MNHN A.C. 12676], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie Aust. Cvtt Le Natte / Expedit. Du Captne Baudin / an XI / 134 / Vieill. (partially illegible) planche 217. 1. 11676 / (illegible) maculatus / Hempidus maculosus (illegible). 2. Turnix maculosus (Tem.). Pedestal label: Turnix maculosa (Tem.) / T. maculata (V.) Type / Exp. Baudin Asie.

SYNTYPE: RMNH.AVES.87.424, adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: He. maculosus / T. mauchete / male / Vieill. Pl 217 / Oceanie. Pedestal label: Turnix maculosa / Cat. 1. / Hemipodius maculosus / Turnix mouchete / Temm. Pig et Gall. / Viell. Pl. 17 / Oceanie / ♀ / Type / ♂ / 1812. Pedestal label: absent.

SYNTYPE (lost): near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Comments

Temminck stated that the Baudin expedition brought back three specimens which entered the MNHN (Voisin and Voisin 2015: 54). One specimen is therefore missing. The MNHN specimen was catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represents the sole specimen of this species. The RMNH specimen was exchanged with Temminck in 1812. At that time, Temminck had one of the largest private collections in Europe (Jansen 2017a). The two surviving syntypes, and likely the missing third syntype as well, are also the type series of Turnix maculatus Vieillot 1819. The type locality is erroneous (le continent de la Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck himself described this species and named it maculosus or ‘spotted’ (Jobling 2017).

Turnix maculatus Vieillot

Turnix maculatus Vieillot, 1819, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 35: 47 (Assam).

Turnix maculosus Temminck, 1815. See Hellmayr 1914: 94–96, van den Hoek Ostende et al. 1997: 53 and Voisin and Voisin 2015: 54 and 57 – Now.

Type materials

The three SYNTYPES are the same as Hemipodius maculosus Temminck.

Comments

Vieillot refers to the Baudin expedition and an Australian orgin, but not to the number of specimens examined. Vieillot referred to Temminck (1815) for the birds he examined. The three syntypes form part of the type series of Hemipodius maculosus Temminck 1815, as well. The type locality is erroneous (Assam), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot, described this species and named it maculatus or ‘spotted’ (Jobling 2017).

Glareola isabella Vieillot

Glareola isabella Vieillot, 1816, Ana. d’une nouv. orn. élém.: 69 (l’Australasie).

Stiltia isabella (Vieillot, 1816). See Mathews 1913: 74 and Voisin and Voisin 2012: 51 – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-162 [MNHN A.C. 13084], male non-breeding, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: n°161 de Péron / asie australe / expédition de découverte / an 11. / Glareola australis / Leach ♂. 3. Glareola grallaria Tem. / Glareola / isabella / Vieill. type / gal. 263. Pedestal label: Glareola grallaria (Tem.) / M. Péron Australie / Gl. isabellina V. (T.).

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-453 [MNHN A.C. 13083], female (moulting in summer-plumage), near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: De Péron / No 161 / A. / Glareola isabella Vieillot / Glareola grallaria Temm. / Glareola Australia Leach / F 3 / ♀ / A. Pedestal label: Glareola grallaria ♀ / (Tem.) / M. Péron Australie

Comments

Vieillot did not mention the number of specimens he examined. The MNHN specimens were catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represent the only specimens of this species. The syntypes of Glareola isabella also form part of the type series of G. grallaria Temminck 1820. The type locality is erroneous (l’Australasie), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species isabella or ‘isabelline-coloured’ (Jobling 2017).

Glareola grallaria Temminck

Glareola grallaria Temminck, 1820, Man. d’Orn.: 503 (l’Austral-Asie).

Stiltia isabella (Vieillot, 1816). See van den Hoek Ostende et al. 1997: 70 and Voisin and Voisin 2012: 51. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-162 [MNHN A.C. 13084], male non-breeding, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: n°161 de Péron / asie australe / expédition de découverte / an 11. / Glareola australis / Leach ♂. 3. Glareola grallaria Tem. / Glareola / isabella / Vieill. type / gal. 263. Pedestal label: Glareola grallaria (Tem.) / M. Péron Australie / Gl. isabellina V. (T.).

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-453 [MNHN A.C. 13083], female (moulting in summer-plumage), near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: De Péron / No 161 / A. / Glareola isabella Vieillot / Glareola grallaria Temm. / Glareola Australia Leach / F 3 / ♀ / A. Pedestal label: Glareola grallaria ♀ / (Tem.) / M. Péron Australie

SYNTYPE: RMNH.AVES.87.567, adult male non-breeding, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Glareola grallaria /♀ Temm Manuel / Cat. N.o 1 / Mus. Par / Australie. Pedestal label: Glareola grallariaad: Cat. 1 / Musée de Paris Australie.

Comments

Temminck did not mention the number of specimens or in which collection he examined them. The MNHN specimens were catalogued around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) and represent the only specimens of this species. The MNHN syntypes are also the type material of Glareola isabella Vieillot 1816. The type locality is erroneous (l’Austral-Asie), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck named this species grallaria or ‘stilt-walker’ (Jobling 2017).

Ninox fusca Vieillot

Ninox fusca Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 7: 22 (Saint-Domingue and Porto-Rico).

Ninox boobook fusca (Vieillot, 1817). See Sharpe 1875: 256 and Voisin and Voisin 2011: 24–25. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2010-277 [MNHN A.C. 784], female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Strix maugei / Tem. / Expédition du Cap. Baudin / en Amérique aux Antilles / tué par Maugé / Strix fusca, Vieillot / L. renseigt d. localit. / me parait fort / douteux / Athene boobook / Lath. / vient / d’Australie / et nondes Antilles / [illegible]. Pedestal label: Athene boobook ♀ / Latham / Maugé Australie.

Comments

The type description lists the wrong collecting location (Saint-Domingue and Porto-Rico) and it refers to two specimens. In the catalogue, notes can be found under the old registration number MNHN A.C. 783 (= MNHN-ZO-2010-276) stating that this specimen represents the type for Ninox fusca (Vieillot 1817) and Ninox maugei (Temminck 1823). And for the MNHN A.C. 784 (= MNHN-ZO-2010-277) it is noted as Ninox boobook (Latham 1801). Measurements taken on 25 April 2017 (Jerome Fuchs in litt.) show that MNHN-ZO-2010-277 has a wing-length of 220 mm. And the female MNHN-ZO-2010-276 has an average wing-length of 251 mm (left 250, right 252). Identifiying MNHN-ZO-2010-277 with plumage characters and measurements as Ninox boobook fusca and MNHN-ZO-2010-276 as Ninox boobook boobook.

Both specimens are the only ‘old’ Australian-Timor specimens in the MNHN and both specimens were listed as having been collected in the Antilles. These notes are attached to the wrong specimen. The only similair owls from the Antilles and Puerto Rico in the museum at that moment with which they could have been confused, were the Puerto Rican Screech-owl Megascops nudipes (Daudin 1800) (MNHN-ZO-MO-2010-272, MNHN-ZO-MO-201-273) and the Tropical Screech-owl Otus choliba crucigerus (Spix 1824) (MNHN-ZO-MO-2010-287) although neither match the description. Erroneous notes were clearly taken by Vieillot. Therefore, the syntype status as noted in Voisin and Voisin 2011: 24–25 needs to be corrected for specimen MNHN-ZO-2010-276. The type localities are erroneous (Saint-Domingue and Porto-Rico), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species fusca or ‘dusky’ (Jobling 2017).

Strix maugei Temminck

Strix maugei Temminck, 1823, Planches Coloriees 3: pl. 46 (Antilles).

Ninox boobook fusca (Vieillot, 1817). See Voisin and Voisin 2011: 24–25. – Now.

Type materials

The SYNTYPE is the same as Ninox fusca Vieillot.

Comments

Temminck mentioned that the species was present in the MNHN and originated from the Antilles. Temminck copied Vieillot about the bird’s origin. The syntype is also that of Ninox fusca Vieillot 1817. The type localities are erroneous (Antilles), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck commemorated René Maugé when giving it its Latin name. See Ninox fusca.

Nisus australis Lesson

Nisus australis Lesson, 1830, Traité d’Orn. 1: 61 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Accipiter fasciatus (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827). See Voisin and Voisin 2001: 184–185. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-1999-2128 [MNHN A.C. 656], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Asie Australe / Cvte le Naturaliste / Exp. du Cap. Baudin / an 11 / 656 / jeun d l’annee / Astur torquatus Tem. / Nisus australis (Less.) / Type de Lesson. Pedestal label: Astur torquatus (Tem.) / Nisus australis (Less.) Type / Exp. Baudin, Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-1999-2129 [MNHN A.C. 660], immature male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Asie Australe / Cvte le Naturaliste / Exp. du Cap. Baudin / an 11 / par Maugé / 660 / Astur torquatus Tem. / Nisus australis (Less.) / Type de Lesson. Pedestal label: Astur torquatus (Tem.) / Nisus australis (Less.) Type / Exp. Baudin, Timor.

Comments

Described by Lesson as originating from ‘Nouvelle-Hollande’ or Australia, with Péron as its origin; the number of specimens is not cited. They were the only two specimens in the MNHN until another specimen from Tasmania arrived from Maison Verreaux in 1844. It is identified in the Parisian catalogue (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 1) as Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrocephalus (Vieillot 1817). However, both syntypes are in fact Brown Goshawks Accipiter fasciatus (Vigors and Horsfield 1827) (contra Voisin and Voisin 2001: 184–185), and are misidentifications and therefore corrected (article 67.13 (ICZN 1999)). Their identification as A. fasciatus is based on the rounded tip of the tail and the position of the 1st knuckle on the outer and middle toes, which are longer than cirrocephalus (Menkhorst et al. 2017). These specimens are also syntypes of Falco torquatus (Cuvier 1821), and Accipiter fasciatus hellmayri (Stresemann 1953). The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Lesson named this species australis or ‘southern’ (Jobling 2017).

Falco torquatus Cuvier

Falco torquatus Cuvier, 1821, in Temminck, Planches Coloriees liv. 8: 43, 93 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Accipiter fasciatus (Vigors & Horsfield, 1827). See Voisin and Voisin 2001: 184–185 – Now.

Type materials

The two SYNTYPES are the same as Nisus australis Lesson.

Comments

Cuvier mentioned that specimens were present in both the MNHN and RMNH. Contra Voisin and Voisin (2001: 184–185) they represent Brown Goshawks Accipiter fasciatus (Vigors and Horsfield 1827) and not Collared Sparrowhawk Accipiter cirrocephalus (Vieillot 1817), and therfore are misidentifications and needed to be corrected (article 67.13 (ICZN 1999)). Stresemann (1953) refers to Falco torquatus Rafinesque 1814 from Sicily, and refers to Temminck (= Cuvier) 1821, and replaces the junior homonym with Accipiter fasciatus hellmayri Stresemann 1953, Jour. f. Orn. LXX: 129 (Nouvelle-Hollande). The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Cuvier named this species torquatus or ‘coloured’ (Jobling 2017). See Nisus australis.

Alcedo moluccana Lesson

Alcedo moluccana Lesson, 1826, Zool. de la Coq. 1: 343 (no locality; the specific epithet suggests Moluccas).

Alcedo atthis bengalensis (Gmelin, 1788). – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-417 [MNHN A.C. 3559], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / M. Maugé / Exp. Cap. Baudin / Cte Natte / 3559 / Alcedo Bengalensis / Gm. Pedestal label: Alcedo bengalensis / (Gm.) / M. Maugé Timor.

Comments

Lesson provided no details on where and how many specimens were examined. Given that he only studied birds in the MNHN (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 2), this is the holotype of the species as it was the only specimen until 1820 (and from the Moluccas), when another specimen collected in ‘Bengale’ by Dussumier was added to the collection. This female was described by Péron (Muséum d’histoire Naturelle, Le Havre no 79125Bv) as ‘Martin-pêcheur rivière de Timor’. The type locality is erroneous (Moluccas), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species moluccana or ‘from the Moluccas’ (Jobling 2017).

Alcedo australasia Vieillot

Alcedo australasia Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 19: 419 (no locality; the specific epithet suggests Australasia).

Now: Todiramphus australasia (Vieillot, 1818). See Pucheran 1853: 389–390 and Hellmayr 1914: 68. – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN A.C. 3488, adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Tag: Halcyon Australasia / Exp. Baudin Timor (Vieill.) / M. Maugé (no 139) other side: Cat. des. gal. 184 (3488).

Comments

The type description by Vieillot provides no details as to how many specimens were involved and from which collection they were examined. This specimen was the sole representative of the species up to the early 1900’s (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 2). The type locality is erroneous (Australasia), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species australasia or ‘southern’ (Jobling 2017).

Psittacus jonquillaceus Vieillot

Psittacus jonquillaceus Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 25: 352 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Now: Aprosmictus jonquillaceus (Vieillot, 1817). See Pucheran 1851: 562, Peters 1937: 248 and Voisin and Voisin 2008: 483–484. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-97 [MNHN A.C. 1346], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: 1346 / Platycerque ensanglanté / Platycercus vulneratus / Wagl. / un der types / Wagler. / Exp. De Cap. Baudin / Maugé / C’est de jonquillaceus / Vieillot. (un des types). Pedestal label: Platycercus vulneratus / P. jonguillaceus (V.) T. / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-104 [MNHN A.C. 1345], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: 1345 / Platycerque ensanglanté / Platycercus vulneratus Wagl. / Timor (illegible) / Maugé / un der types / Wagler (illegible) / P. jonquillaceus / Vieillot (illegible) types. Pedestal label: Platycercus vulneratus / P. jonquillaceues (V.) T. / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: NMS_Z 1929.186.12, adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 20: Psittacus jonquillaceus, La. P. Jonquille, une belle variété, Nlle Hollande.

Comments

Vieillot referred neither to the number of available specimens nor to the collection where he examined the species. Both MNHN birds were the only two specimens (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 1) until Temminck provided a male from Timor in 1844. The specimen now in NMS left the MNHN at an unknown date, but probably not before 1818, and should have been examined by Vieillot. It has therefore been considered part of the type-series. For this reason, it is assumed that the NMS syntype does not double as syntype for Platycercus vulneratus Wagler 1832, in contrast to the MNHN syntypes. The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species jonquillaceus or ‘narcissus’ (Jobling 2017).

Platycercus vulneratus Wagler

Platycercus vulneratus Wagler, 1832, Monographia Psittacorum: 704 (Timor).

Aprosmictus jonquillaceus (Vieillot, 1817). See Pucheran 1851: 562 and Voisin and Voisin 2008: 483–484. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-97 [MNHN A.C. 1346], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: 1346 / Platycerque ensanglanté / Platycercus vulneratus / Wagl. / un der types / Wagler. / Exp. De Cap. Baudin / Maugé / C’est de jonquillaceus / Vieillot. (un des types). Pedestal label: Platycercus vulneratus / P. jonguillaceus (V.) T. / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-104 [MNHN A.C. 1345], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: 1345 / Platycerque ensanglanté / Platycercus vulneratus Wagl. / Timor (illegible) / Maugé / un der types / Wagler (illegible) / P. jonquillaceus / Vieillot (illegible) types. Pedestal label: Platycercus vulneratus / P. jonquillaceues (V.) T. / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

Wagler did not mention how many specimens he examined, but clearly those in the MNHN (Voisin and Voisin 2008: 483–484). There were originally two specimens, followed by a male from Timor, donated by Temminck in 1844 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 1). Both syntypes also form part of the type series of Psittacus jonquillaceus Vieillot 1817. The type locality Timor is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Wagler named this species vulneratus or ‘wounded’ (Jobling 2017).

Psittacula batavensis Wagler

Psittacula batavensis Wagler, 1832, Monographia Psittacorum: 624 (Java, Nova Hollandia australi).

Geoffroyus geoffroyi (Bechstein, 1811). See Voisin and Voisin 2008: 481. – Now

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-93 [MNHN A.C. 1481], male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Exp. Cap. Baudin / 1481 / ♂ / Geoffroyus batavensis / Wagl. / Type (added with pen: Geoffroyus geoffroyi geoffroyi / (Bechstein)). Pedestal label: Geoffroyus batavensis / ♂ / (Wagl.) Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-MO-2004-102 [MNHN A.C. 1482], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Cap. Baudin / an XI / nº 3 / 1482 / ♀ / Geoffroyus bataviensis / Wagl. / Type. Pedestal label: Geoffroyus batavensis / ♀ / (Wagl.) Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

These two syntypes were the only two specimens in the MNHN until a specimen arrived with La Zélée from Dumont d’Urville’s Astrolabe expedition (1837–1840), donated by Hombron and Jacquinot (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 1). Wagler did not mention the number of specimens examined, only that they were present in MNHN. Other Baudin expedition specimens (not examined by Wagler) is one bird in C.J. Temminck’s private collection (Temminck 1807: 33, no 1060) and two birds that arrived in 1815 in NMW (NMW 50.150 and NMW 50.149). The type localities are erroneous (Java and Nova Hollandia australi), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Wagler named this species batavensis or ‘from Batavia’ (Jobling 2017).

Melithreptus flavicans Vieillot

Melithreptus flavicans Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 14: 325 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Lichmera flavicans (Vieillot, 1817). See Hellmayr 1916: 102. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2010-462 [MNHN A.C. 10176], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Exp. Baudin / Le Naturaliste / Péron et Lesueur / an XI / 10176 No 29 / Ptilotis / flavicans V. / Type. Pedestal label: Ptilotis flavicans / Type (Vieill.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2010-463 [MNHN A.C. 10177], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Cte Naturaliste / Cap. Baudin / an XI / 10177 / Ptilotis flavicans / V. / Type. Pedestal label: Ptilotis flavicans / Type (Vieill.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

Vieillot did not describe how many birds were involved and where they were examined. They were the only two specimens in the MNHN (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4). The syntypes also formed the basis for Meliphaga maculata Temminck 1820. The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species flavicans or ‘becoming yellow’ (Jobling 2017).

Meliphaga maculata Temminck

Meliphaga maculata Temminck, 1820, Man. d’Orn. Liv. 5: plate 29, fig. 1 (l’Océanie).

Lichmera flavicans (Vieillot, 1817). See Hellmayr 1916: 102. – Now.

Type materials

The two SYNTYPES are the same as Melithreptus flavicans Vieillot.

Comments

Temminck did not mention the number of specimens he examined in the MNHN. The only two specimens in the MNHN were the birds collected at the Baudin expedition (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4). These syntypes also are those of Melithreptus flavicans Vieillot 1817, making it an objective junior synonym. The type locality is erroneous (l’Océanie), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck, named this species maculata or ‘spotted’ (Jobling 2017).

Philedon buceroides Swainson

Philedon buceroides Swainson, 1837, Anim. Menag.: 325–326 (New Holland).

Philemon buceroides Swainson, 1837. See Pucheran 1858: 469 and Hellmayr 1916: 101–102. – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2010-472 [MNHN A.C. 10100], immature, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Australie / Cette L. Naturaliste / M. Maugé / Capte Baudin / 10.100 / Philemon = / (illegible) = buceroides / P. timoriensis SW / (Mull) Type. Pedestal label: Philemon buceroides (Sw.) / timoriensis (Mull.) Type / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

Swainson studied one bird in the MNHN. The Baudin expedition bird represents the only specimen in the MNHN (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4). The bird which was once in NMS (Dufresne Ms 1818: 87) was not a type and is no longer present (Bob McGowan in litt.). The type locality is erroneous (New Holland), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Swainson named this species buceroides or ‘resembling a hornbill’ (Jobling 2017).

Meliphaga reticulata Temminck

Meliphaga reticulata Temminck, 1824, Planches Coloriees 5: pl. 29, fig. 2 (Timor).

Meliphaga reticulatus Temminck, 1824. See Pucheran 1858: 469 and Hellmayr 1916: 101–102. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2010-450 [MNHN A.C. 10178], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / an XI Baudin / Péron et Lesueur / Le Naturaliste / 10178 / Ptilotis reticulate / (Type) (Tem.). Pedestal label: Ptilotis reticulata / Type (Tem.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2010-451 [MNHN A.C. 10179], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Le Naturaliste / Exp. Baudin / Péron et Lesueur / an XI / 10179 / Ptilotis reticulata / Tem. / Type. Pedestal label: Ptilotis reticulata / Type (Tem.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

Temminck only mentioned that the species could be found in the MNHN. The only two specimens at the MNHN at the time of writing are birds from the Baudin expedition (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4). The specimen now in NMW (NMW 35.339) left the MNHN by 1815, was not examined by Temminck, and has no type status. The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck named this species reticulata or ‘reticulated/with net-like markings’ (Jobling 2017).

Sphecotera viridis Vieillot

Sphecotera viridis Vieillot, 1816, Ana. d’une nouv. élém. orn.: 68 (l’Australasie).

Sphecotheres viridis Vieillot, 1816. See Quoy and Gaimard 1824: 103 and Lesson 1831: 351. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-677 [MNHN A.C. 9636], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie Aus.C.te Le Nat.te. Expedit. Du Capt Baudin / an 11 / Timor / Maugé (the remainder of the pedestal is faded). Pedestal label: Sphecothere verte, ♂ / Sphectothere viridis / Sphectotherus virescens / Grauculus viridis, Quoy and Gaimard / de Timor, par Maugé.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-680 [MNHN A.C. 9634], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Pie grieche (illegible) / (Sticker) Asie Aust. Cvtte Le Nat.te / Expedit. Du Capt.te Baudin / an 11 / Sphecothera grisca, Less / Type. Pedestal label: Sphecothere australe / Sphectothera / australis / panicollis / Sw. / Sphectotherus grisea, Less (T.) / Lanius asturinus Geoff. St. H. (T) / Nouvelle-Hollande par Péron et Lesueur.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-681 [MNHN A.C. 9640], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Pie grieche (illegible) / (Sticker) Asie Aust. Cvtte Le Nat.te / Expedit. Du Capt.te Baudin / an 11 / Sphecothera grisca, Less / Type (illegible) Sphectothere. Pedestal label: Sphecothere verte, ♂ / Sphectothere viridis / Sphectotherus grisea, Less (T.) / Lanius asturnius, Geof. St H. (T) / de Timor, par Péron et Lesueur

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-698 [MNHN A.C. 9639], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Sphecothere verte (Sticker) Asie Aus.C.te Le Natte. Expedit. Du Cap. Baudin / an 11 / Timor / Maugé / (illegible) colliera Viell / Viello (illegible). Pedestal label: Sphecothere verte, ♂, Vieill. Gal, 147 (T) / Sphectothere viridis / Sphectotherus virescens Vieill. (T.) / Grauculus viridis, Quoy et Gaimard / de Timor, par Maugé.

SYNTYPE (lost). The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 16: Sphectothere viridis, Le Choucar vert Cuvier, Nlle Hollde, rare (Timor). Not found in 2016-2017 (Bob McGowan in litt.).

Comments

Vieillot did not mention the number of specimens he examined or from which collection. These were the only specimens in the MNHN until one arrived via Maison Verreaux (Natural History merchants from Paris) in 1830 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). A specimen in the NMS could have been examined by Vieillot and is therefore designated as a type-specimen. Another Baudin expedition specimen, present in NMW (NMW 52.648) had already arrived by 1806 and is not part of the type-series as it was not examined by Vieillot. The same applies for the bird documented in Temminck (1803–04: 27) and Temminck (1807: 50 and 204, no 320). Unfortunately, the Leiden specimen could not be checked due to the closure of the collection between 2016–2019. The syntypes listed above, except the NMS-syntype, also represent the type material of Sphecothera grisea Lesson 1830 and Lanius asturinus Lesson 1830. The type locality is erroneous (l’Australasie), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot, named this species viridis or ‘green’ (Jobling 2017).

Sphecothera grisea Lesson

Sphecothera grisea Lesson, 1830, Traité d’Orn. 5: 351 (terres Australes).

Sphecotheres viridis (Vieillot, 1816). See Quoy and Gaimard 1824: 103 and Lesson 1831: 351. –Now.

Type materials

The five SYNTYPES are the same as Sphecotera viridis Vieillot.

Comments

Lesson did not mention the number he examined nor in which collection. The syntypes of Sphecothera grisea are also part of the type series of Sphecothera viridis Vieillot 1816. The type locality is erroneous (terres Australes), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Lesson named this species grisea or ‘grey’ (Jobling 2017). See Sphecotera viridis.

Lanius asturinus Lesson

Lanius asturinus Lesson, 1830, Traité d’Orn. 5: 351 (terres Australes).

Sphecotheres viridis (Vieillot, 1816). See Quoy and Gaimard 1824: 103 and Lesson 1831: 351. – Now.

Type materials

The five SYNTYPES are the same as Sphecotera viridis Vieillot.

Comments

Lesson did not mention the number of specimens he examined or the collection. These were the only specimens in the MNHN until another one arrived via Maison Verreaux in 1830 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). Other specimens which are not regarded as types are: NMW 52.648, which arrived in NMW in or before 1806; one in C. J. Temminck’s private collection, which could presently be in Naturalis (Temminck 1803–04: 27, Temminck 1807: 50 and 204, no 320) and one specimen which could not be located in NMS (Dufresne Ms 1818: 16). The type locality is erroneous (terres Australes), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Lesson named this species asturinus or ‘goshawk like’ (Jobling 2017).

Turdus Suerii Vieillot

Turdus Suerii Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 20: 270 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Lalage sueurii (Vieillot, 1818). See Mathews 1914: 104, Hellmayr 1916: 99–100 and Dickinson et al. 2002: 40. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-683 [MNHN A.C. 9821], non-breeding male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Australie / Exp. Baudin / Timor / 9821 / Lalage timoriensis / Turdus sueri / type Vieill. Pedestal label: Lalage timorensis (Mull) / T. sueurii Type (V.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-674 [MNHN A.C. 9823], immature, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Exp. Baudin / Maugé / 9823 / an 11 / >Lalaga timorensis / Mull / L. leucopoea / Type et Vieill. Pedestal label: Lalage timorensis (Mull) / S. leucophaca Type (V.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

This species was only present in the MNHN, but Vieillot did not list the number of specimens. These specimens represent the only two listed in the registration book (drafted in roughly 1854) (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3), as originating from Timor. Another specimen collected in the Philippines by Dussumier entered the collection in 1820. The syntypes also constitute the types of Sylvia leucophæa Vieillot 1817 (see below), making them objective synonyms. The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot commemorated Charles Alexandre Lesueur when naming this bird.

Sylvia leucophœa Vieillot

Sylvia leucophœa Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 11: 189 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Lalage sueurii (Vieillot, 1818). – Now.

Type materials

The two SYNTYPES are the same as Turdus Suerii Vieillot.

Comments

An unknown number of specimens was described by Vieillot. These specimens represent the only two in the registration book (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). Another specimen collected in the Philippines by Dussumier entered the collection in 1820. The name suerii supersedes the chronologically senior name leucophaea, this needs to be subject to additional research. The syntypes are the same as that of Turdus Suerii Vieillot 1818. The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species leucophaea or ‘shining white’ (Jobling 2017).

Artamus cinereus Vieillot

Artamus cinereus Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 17: 297 (Timor).

Artamus cinereus perspicillatus (Bonaparte, 1850). See Valenciennes 1820: 23, Wagler 1827 (Leptopteryx 4), Ford 1978, Mees 1982: 164, Schodde and Mason 1999: 566 and Dekker and Quaisser 2006: 57–58. – Now.

Type materials

LECTOTYPE: RMNH.AVES.90.493, adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Tag: from O. Finsch hand (drafted around 1900): Kat. No 1 ad. Type temminck / Artmaus cinereus Vieill. 1817 / Sharpe Cat. Brit. M. XIII p. 16 / Cabinet Temminck 1807 / Australia (N.S.W., Tem). Other side tag: Type “l’Angroyan gris Tem. Cat. Syst. 1807 p. 102 no 166 (Nouv. Gall. / merid.) ib. p. 232 (illegible) / Spater: Ocypterus cinereus / Australie “by Tem” on label. A new tag is attached when the specimen was typified see Dekker & Quaisser 2006. The bird is documented in Temminck (1804–05: 59) and Temminck (1807: 102, 232, no 166).

PARALECTOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2010-488 [MNHN A.C. 9620], immature, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: 1 (Sticker) Asie aust. Covtte Le Natte / Expedit. du Captt Baudin / an XI / Timor par Maugé. 2. Lanrayer ligne blanc. 3. Art. luneaus Vieillot juene age / Type de Vieillot / Ocypetrus albovittatus / (illegible) / (illegible) / fig 2. Pedestal label: Le Langrayen a lignes blanches Cuv. / Ocypetrus albo-vittatus Val. Mem.Mus VS Pl 8, 1 / de Timor: par Maugé.

PARALECTOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2010-489 [MNHN A.C. 9608], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Sticker: Asie Aust. Cvette Natte / Expedit. Du Cap. Baudin / an XI / Par Maugé. 1. Artamus cinereus / Vieillot / type de Vieillot. Pedestal label: Artamus cinereus / T. (V.) / Maugé Timor.

PARALECTOTYPE: NMS_Z 1929.186.134, adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 6: Artamus perspicillatus (added later), Le Langraien Gris, de Timor, 1929.186.134 (added later).

No original label.

Comments

Vieillot only mentioned the type locality and not the number of specimens examined. The MNHN-Baudin expedition birds were the two specimens that had entered the registration books around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). Mees (1982: 164) designated the RMNH-specimen as Lectotype using Streseman (1953: 323) as primarily source. Hellmayr (1916) could trace the birds in MNHN, but he was right in noting that the origin of this taxon was Timor: the measurements and biomorphological characteristics for all the specimens mentioned here seem to indicate that the name cinereus should be applied to the Timor subspecies, hitherto conventionally named perspicillatus. The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species cinereus or ‘ash-grey’ (Jobling 2017).

Ocypterus albiventer Lesson

Ocypterus albiventer Lesson, 1831, Traité d’Orn. 5: 370 (Timor).

Artamus leucorynchus albiventer (Lesson, 1831). See Valenciennes 1820: 22 and Mees 1982: 161–162. – Now

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-514 [MNHN A.C. 9599], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie. Aust. Cvte le Natte / Expedit. du. Captne Baudin / au 11 / Timor par Maugé. 2. Lelangrayer / ent.9.f.1. / Lanius leucorhynchos, L. / Artamus leucorhynchos / Vieillot. Pedestal label: Le Langrayen a ventre blanc. / Val. Mem. Mus. VI. Pl. 7. fig. 87? / Lanius leucorhynchos. Lan. Dominicanus. Gm. / De Timor: par Maugé.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2016-524 [MNHN A.C. 9601], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Tag: Artamus leucorhynchus albiventris (Lesson) / Timor / (other side) “expedition du Capitaine Baudin / Artamus par Maugé” / “ Langrayen a ventre Blache.

SYNTYPE: NMW 5.464 [NMW 1810.XXIII.2], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

No original label.

SYNTYPE: NMW 70.486 [NMW 1815.XXXVI.28], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal label: N 29 Lanius / 127 / leucorhynchus / Pie-Grieche de Manille / v. pariser Museum / Artamus / leucorhynchus / 1815.

Comments

Lesson did not specify how many birds were examined, only that they originated from Timor and were brought back by Maugé. These were the only specimens in the collection until a specimen arrived from the Philippines via Maison Verreaux in 1837 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). Mees (1982) drew attention to an issue regarding Lesson’s name, which included reference to the specimens collected by Maugé listed above, but could be interpreted as a replacement name for Ocypterus leucogaster Valenciennes 1820. The issue is not yet solved, and more research is needed. The type locality is restricted to: Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Lesson named this species albiventer or ‘white-bellied’ (Jobling 2017).

Platyrhynchos rufiventris Vieillot

Platyrhynchos rufiventris Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 27: 21–22 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Rhipidura rufiventris (Vieillot, 1818). See Mayr and Traylor 1986: 538. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1149 [MNHN A.C. 9417], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Asie / australe / Timor / Cvtte l. Naturaliste / (Péron) Exp. Baudin / 9417 an 11 / Rhipidura / rufiventris / V. Pedestal label: Rhipidura rufiventris / Type (Vieill.) / Exp. Baudin Timor

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1156 [MNHN A.C. 9418], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Péron et Lesueur / 9418 / Rhipidura rufiventris / Less. Type V. Pedestal label: Rhipidura rufiventris / Type (Vieill.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

Vieillot did not specify how many specimens were in the MNHN. The only two specimens that entered the registration book (drafted roughly by 1854) are those described above (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species rufiventer or ‘red belly’ (Jobling 2017).

Platyrynchos ruficollis Vieillot

Platyrynchos ruficollis Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 27: 13 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Myiagra ruficollis (Vieillot, 1818). See Pucheran 1855: 360, Hellmayr 1916: 99 and Mathews 1921–1922: 54. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-525 [MNHN A.C. 9349], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Cvtte le Naturaliste / Exp. Baudin / an 11 / 9349 / Myiagra rufigula / (illegible) Vieill. / (V). Pedestal label: Myiagra ruficollis / (V.) / Exp. Baudin Timor

SYNTYPE: NMS_Z 1819.20.1.67., adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 72: moucherolle à gorge rousse Timor. Old printed lable: Myiagra rufigula, Wallace / Timor. New label: Dufresne moucherolle a gorge rousses / de Timor / Mesurements wg 68 / tar 18 / Tail 66 Beak 12. Other side of new label: Reg. no 1819-20.1.67 / Myiagra ruficula / M. ruficollis / Timor.

Comments

Vieillot did not specify how many specimens were present in the MNHN. The current MNHN specimen was the sole specimen in the MNHN until another arrived in 1844 with La Zélée from Dumont d’Urville’s Astrolabe expedition (1837–1840), donated by Hombron and Jacquinot. The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species ruficollis or ‘red-necked’ (Jobling 2017).

Dicæum Maugei Lesson

Dicæum Maugei Lesson, 1830, Traité d’Orn. 4: 303 (Timor).

Dicaeum maugei (Lesson, 1830). – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2012-633 [MNHN A.C. 10423], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / par M. Maugé / Dicaeum maugei / type (Less.) / 10423. Pedestal label: Dicaeeum hirundinaceum / (Shaw) / Exp. Baudin Australie

Comments

Lesson did not say how many specimens he examined, only refering to a female collected by Maugé. This female was the sole specimen from the Baudin expedition that entered the registration book around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4) as can be seen from the original description. There was also one other bird, collected by Labillardière in Tasmania which arrived between 1816–1818. The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Lesson commemorated Maugé in the species’ name.

Sylvia australasiae Vieillot

Sylvia australasiae Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 11: 235 (l’Australasie).

Zosterops citrinella (Bonaparte, 1850). See Mees 1961: 29–30 and Stresemann 1951: 69–70. – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-446 [MNHN A.C. 10293], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Exp. Du cap. Baudin / Timor / Maugé an 11 / Zosterops citronella / (Mull.) / 10293. Pedestal label: Zosterops citrinella / (Mull) / M. Maugé Timor.

Comments

Vieillot did not specify how many specimens he had studied. This bird is the only specimen that had entered the registration books around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 4). Mees (1961: 31) favoured to leave the name australasiae indeterminate, believing (erroneously) the holotype to be lost and viewing Vieillot’s description as too ambiguous to confidently assign the name. The type locality is erroneous (l’Australasie), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species australasiae or ‘southern’ (Jobling 2017).

Turdus peronii Vieillot

Turdus peronii Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 10: 212 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Geokichla peronii (Vieillot, 1817). See Pucheran 1855: 352–353, 377 and Mayr 1944: 155. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1103 [MNHN A.C. 8394], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / M. Maugé / Exp. Baudin / an 11 / 8394 / Geocichla peroni / Type V. Pedestal label: Geocichla peronii / Type (Vieill.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1105 [MNHN A.C. 8383], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Exp. Baudin / M. Maugé an 11 / 8393 / Geocichla peroni / Type V. Pedestal label: Geocichla peronii / Type (Vieill.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: NMW 13.310 [1815.XXXVII.32], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.].

Pedestal label: 12210 (alte no 1815.XXXVII.32) / Geoleichla / Turdulus peronii o esp? / Australie?? (Timor) / last line illegible. Old tag: 1815.XXXII.32 / (144) / Turdus peronii Vieill. / Neu Holland? / Von Dufresne gekft.

Comments

Vieillot did not describe how many specimens were available to him when preparing the species description. The two MNHN specimens are the only specimens that had entered the registration book around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). The bird now in NMW was also available to Vieillot as it was sent to Vienna in 1815 (see explantation in chapter: Timorese bird-specimens collected by Maugé and his colleagues). A specimen sent to Rouen on 23 April 1806 (Muséum d’histoire Naturelle, Le Havre no 21111, 21114) and burned in the night of 30–31 December 1926 (Bénédicte Percheron and Thierry Kermanach in litt.) was not part of the type-series. The first two syntypes listed above are also the syntypes of Turdus Novæ Hollandiæ Lesson 1831. The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot paid tribute to François Péron when naming this species.

Turdus Novœ Hollandiœ Lesson

Turdus Novœ Hollandiœ Lesson, 1831, Traite d’Orn. 6: 411 (no locality; the specific epithet suggests Nouvelle Hollande).

Geokichla peronii (Vieillot, 1817). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1103 [MNHN A.C. 8394], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / M. Maugé / Exp. Baudin / an 11 / 8394 / Geocichla peroni / Type V. Pedestal label: Geocichla peronii / Type (Vieill.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1105 [MNHN A.C. 8383], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Exp. Baudin / M. Maugé an 11 / 8393 / Geocichla peroni / Type V. Pedestal label: Geocichla peronii / Type (Vieill.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

Lesson did not mention the number of specimens examined. The two MNHN specimens are the only specimens that had entered the registration book around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). Both syntypes listed above are also part of the type material of Turdus peronii Vieillot 1817. The type locality is erroneous (Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Lesson named this species novaehollandiae or ‘from New Holland’ (Jobling 2017).

Muscicapa hyacinthina Temminck

Muscicapa hyacinthina Temminck, 1820, Planches Coloriees 3: 119 (Timor).

Cyornis hyacinthinus (Temminck, 1820). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1136 [MNHN A.C. 9861], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Exp. Baudin / Lesueur / 9861 / ♂ / Siphia / Cyornis / hyacintina / Mnacyanea / Tem. / Typ. de Vieillot. Pedestal label: Siphia hyacinthina ♂ / Type (Tem.) / Exp. Baudin Timor

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1138 [MNHN A.C. 9862], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Timor / Exp. Baudin / Lesueur / 9862 / ♀ / Spihia / Cyornis / hyacintina / Tem. / Typ. de Vieillot. Pedestal label: Siphia hyacinthina ♀ / Type (Tem.) / Exp. Baudin Timor.

Comments

Temminck did not mention the number of specimens he examined in the MNHN. The only two MNHN specimens were a male and a female (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). The two syntypes are also the syntypes of Muscicapa cyanea Vieillot 1818, making it an objective junior synonym, but Vieillot’s name has been suppressed (Anon. 1956). The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Temminck named this species hyacinthina or ‘hyacinthine/like the hyacinth’ (Jobling 2017).

Muscicapa cyanea Vieillot

Muscicapa cyanea Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 21: 447 (no locality).

Cyornis hyacinthinus (Temminck, 1820). See Vaurie 1952: 104–105 and Anon. 1956: 257–264. – Now.

Type materials

The two SYNTYPES are the same as Muscicapa hyacinthina Temminck.

Comments

Vieillot did not record how many specimens were available to him when examening the species. The two syntypes are the only specimens of this taxon that where registered (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). The name has been suppressed (Anon. 1956) at request of Vaurie (1952). Both syntypes double as those of Muscicapa hyacinthina Temminck 1820, which name now takes precedence. The type locality is lacking, and therefore clarified as: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species cyanea (= dark-blue) (Jobling 2017).

Œnanthe pyrrhonota Vieillot

Œnanthe pyrrhonota Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 21: 428 (Nouvelle Hollande).

Saxicola caprata pyrrhonota (Vieillot, 1818). See Pucheran 1855: 347 and Deignan and Ripley 1964: 113. – Now.

Type materials

‘type’ (lost). Specimen MNHN A.C. 9128 is documented in: ZMO-GalOis 3: 9128 / Pratincola caprata, Gm / Timor? / Voy. aux Terre Austral. an 11. S. 1977 no 1. Catalogue des Merles: 784 / 9128 Pratincola caprata / Timor / Exp. Baudin / an 11. S / 1977 no 1. Exit from the MNHN collection in 1977 (no 1) part of 387 specimens that were destroyed.

Comments

A single bird was selected and described by Vieillot; a female. However, this bird is no longer present. Unknown if the bird, that ended up in NMS, was this specific female (Dufresne Ms 1818, 74: Œnanthe caprata, Gm., Le traquet del Isle de Luzon, Buff. 235.1., Terres Australes), however, the annotation in Dufresne 1818destroyed in 1892’ confirms that the specimen is no longer present. Only a male collected at the Baudin expedition still resides in the MNHN (MNHN A.C. 9127). The male was the only specimen in the collection until another arrived with La Favorite in 1844 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). Vieillot named this species pyrrhonota or ‘flame-coloured/red’ (Jobling 2017). A solution for this special case, should be found in the future (e.g. type-specimen and type-locality).

Œnanthe gutturalis Vieillot

Œnanthe gutturalis Vieillot, 1818, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 21: 421 (Nouvelle-Hollande).

Saxicola gutturalis (Vieillot, 1818). See Pucheran 1855: 346–347, Hellmayr 1916: 98 and Deignan and Ripley 1964: 115. – Now.

Type materials

HOLOTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2013-1118 [MNHN A.C. 9079], adult female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie aust. Cvtte le Natte / Expedit. du captne Baudin / an 11 / N. tr. Par Lesueur. 2. Sylvia? / Vieill. / type d. Vieillot. Pedestal label: Traquent a gorge blanche, o. / Saxicola gutturalis. / Sylvia gutturalis, Vieill. (T) / de la Nouvelle-Hollande (?) / par Péron et Lesueur / = Oreica melanoleuca (Vieil.) ♀.

Comments

A single bird was selected and described by Vieillot; a female. Three other Baudin expedition birds still exists (female, NMW 12.359; male, MNHN-ZO-2011-595; male, NMS_Z 1819.1.41). The type locality is erroneous (e.g. Nouvelle-Hollande), and therefore corrected and restricted to: near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species gutturalis or ‘of the throat’ (Jobling 2017).

Loxia variegata Vieillot

Loxia variegata Vieillot, 1807, Ois. Chant.: 82 (Moluccas).

Lonchura molucca (Linnaeus, 1766). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-502 [MNHN A.C. 6507], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: 1 (Sticker) (illegible) Cvte Le Natte / expedit. Du Capte Baudin / an XI Timor mer / Maugé. 2. Vieill. / variegate V / Munia (illegible). Pedestal label: Munia variegata / (V.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-503 [MNHN A.C. 6508], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Asie austr. Cvte Le Natte / expedit. du Capt Baudin / an XI Timor par / Maugé L. variegate. 2. Vieillot Ois Chat N 3 / Loxia variegate / Munia variegata / V. Pedestal label: Munia variegata / (V.) / M. Maugé Timor.

Comments

Vieillot did not mention the number of specimens he examined or which collections he used to describe the species. The two specimens in the MNHN from the Baudin expedition are the only specimens in the collection (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). The type locality is erroneous (Moluccas), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species variegata or ‘variegated’ (Jobling 2017).

Loxia atricapilla Vieillot

Loxia atricapilla Vieillot, 1807, Ois. Chant.: 84 (Les Grandes Indes).

Lonchura punctulata particeps (Riley, 1920). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-504 [MNHN A.C. 6509], immature, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: MNHN-ZO-2014-504: (Sticker) Cvtte Le Natte/ Expedit. du Captn Baudin / an 11 Timor. 2. Le domino / Vieillot Ou Ch pl 50 / Maugé. Pedestal label: Munia puctularia / (L.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-505 [MNHN A.C. 6510], immature, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Munia / punctularia / Timor / Maugé / an X. Pedestal label: Munia punctularia / (L.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE (lost): Specimen NMW 1815.XXXVI.68 is documented in the first acquisition book in Vienna and can be found on page 89: Loxia punctularia / Inde / 1 / 1. This bird was part of an exchange of 122 birds (102 species) with the MNHN in 1815. Not found at 27–28 February 2017, nor at subsequent visits, or by its curators Hans-Martin Berg and Anita Gamauf.

SYNTYPE (lost). The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 56: Loxia punctularia, Le Domino, B. Pl. 109, Nlle Hollande. The annotation in Dufresne 1818destroyed in May 1892’ confirms that the specimen is no longer present.

Comments

The original description does not indicate how many specimens were involved, only that the species was described from the MNHN collection. It was wrongly identified in the acquisition books, so it is difficult to establish exactly how many birds were present. The nomenclatural availability and taxonomic identity of the name atricapilla needs additional research, particularly in relation to the chronologically junior name[s] particeps and blasii Stresemann (1912). The type locality is erroneous (Les Grandes Indes), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species atricapilla or ‘black-headed’ (Jobling 2017).

Loxia quinticolor Vieillot

Loxia quinticolor Vieillot, 1807, Ois. Chant.: 85 (Timor).

Lonchura quinticolor (Vieillot, 1807). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-500 [MNHN A.C. 6506], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker): Asie Aust Cvtte Le Natte / Loxia quinticolor, Vieill. / Expedit. du Capne Baudin / an 11 Timor / Maugé. 2. Munia quinticolor (V.). Pedestal label: Munia quinticolor ♂ / (V.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-501 [MNHN A.C. 6505], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie Aust. Cvtte le Natte / Loxia quinticolor / Expedit. du Catne Baudin / an 11 Timor / Vieill. / Maugé. 2. Munia quinticolor (V.). Pedestal label: Munia quinticolor ♂ / ((V.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: NMW 35569 [NMW 1815.XXXVI.117], adult, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal label: Amadina quinticolor / 1815 XXXVI – 117 / Von Pariser Mus. In kauf / Molukken / no 121.

SYNTYPE (lost): The bird is documented in a Temminck (1807: 112 no 994). No specific specimens were located.

Comments

The number of specimens is not mentioned in the type-description nor is the collection mentioned. The two MNHN specimens are the only remaining specimens (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species quinticolor or ‘five-coloured’ (Jobling 2017).

Loxia fuscata Vieillot

Loxia fuscata Vieillot, 1807, Ois. Chant.: 95 (Timor).

Lonchura fuscata (Vieillot, 1807). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2011-597 [MNHN A.C. 6489], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: 1. (Sticker) Asie austr. Cvte le Natte / expedit. du Capte Baudin / an XI du Moluques / Padda brun. 2. (illegible) 95 pl 62 / Padda fuscata Vieill. / Loxia. Pedestal label: Padda fuscata / (V.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN A.C. 6490 [MNHN A.C. 6490], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: (Sticker) Asie Aust. Cvtte Natte / Expedit. Du Capten Baudin. an 11 / le Padde brun ♂. 1. Loxia fuscata Padda (vieill.) pl 45. Pedestal label: Padda fuscata / ♂ / (V.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN A.C. 6491, female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Loxia madagascar / Padda / Sticker: Asie Aust. Cvtte Natte / Expedit. De Capt Baud / An XI Timor / ♀ Maugé. Pedestal label: not present.

SYNTYPE: NMW 35.570 [NMW 1815.XXXVII.38], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal label: Amadina fuscata Gray / 1815-XXXVII-38 (153) / Dufresne gekft.

SYNTYPE (lost). The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 56: Loxia fuscata, La Padda Brun, Vieiilot, Nlle Hollde, rare. The annotation in Dufresne 1818destroyed in May 1892’ confirms that the specimen is no longer present.

Comments

The number of specimens is not mentioned by Vieillot (1807: 95), but the descriptions of a male, female and first year birds indicate multiple specimens. The three MNHN birds were the only three until another was donated by the RMNH in 1855 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). The NMW specimen was present in the MNHN when Vieillot (1807) described the species. The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species fuscata or ‘dark’ (Jobling 2017).

Fringilla guttata Vieillot

Fringilla guttata Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 12: 233 (îles Moluques).

Taeniopygia guttata (Vieillot, 1817). See Lesson 1831: 446 and Blake et al. 1968: 358. – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-506 [MNHN A.C. 6548], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Taeniopygia insularis / (Wall) / Maugé / M. Maugé / an 11 Timor / Exp. du Cne Baudin. Pedestal label: Taeniopygia insularis / (Wall.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-507 [MNHN A.C. 6549], immature male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Taeniopygia / insularis (Wall) / Maugé / Timor / an 11 / Exp. du Capne / Baudin. Pedestal label: Taeniopygia insularis / (Wall.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-508 [MNHN A.C. 6550], female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Taeniopygia / insularis (Wall.) / Exped. du Maugé / Cne Baudin Timor / an 11. Pedestal label: Taeniopygia insularis / (Wall.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-510 [MNHN A.C. 6551], female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Taeniopygia / insularis (Wall.) / Maugé Timor / an 11 / Exp. Cne / Baudin. Pedestal label: Taeniopygia insularis / (Wall.) / M. Maugé Timor.

SYNTYPE: NMW 52.401 [NMW 1815.XXXVII.240a], female, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal label: 1815 XXXVII 24 / Amadina castanotis Gould fem. / Von Lalande gekft / Molukken / 305.

SYNTYPE (lost). The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 61: Fringilla guttata, Le bengali moucheté, male, V. Dict. D.h. n. t. 12, p 233. Not found in 2016-2017 (Bob McGowan in litt.).

SYNTYPE (lost). The information available for the NMS bird is Dufresne Ms 1818, 61: Fringilla guttata, Le bengali moucheté, femelle, V. Dict. D.h. n. t. 12, p 233. Not found in 2016–2017 (Bob McGowan in litt.).

Comments

The number of specimens is not mentioned by Vieillot, but the descriptions of a male, female and first year birds indicate multiple specimens. The four Baudin expedition birds are the only specimens that had entered the registration books around 1854 (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3). The other three specimens (NMW + NMS) were also examined by Vieillot. The type locality is erroneous (îles Moluques), and therefore corrected and restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species guttata or ‘spotted/speckled’ (Jobling 2017).

Fringilla tricolor Vieillot

Fringilla tricolor Vieillot, 1817, Nouv. Dict. Nat. éd. 12: 233 (Timor).

Now: Erythrura tricolor (Vieillot, 1817). – Now.

Type materials

SYNTYPE: MNHN-ZO-2014-509 [MNHN A.C. 6584], adult male, near Kupang Bay, Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara, West-Timor (10°11'0"S; 123°35'0"E), between 22 August and 13 November 1801, by René Maugé.

Pedestal underside: Erythrura tricolor / Mr Maugé(V.) / Timor / acq. Temminck. Pedestal label: Erythrura tricolor / V. / M. Maugé Timor.

Comments

The number of specimens was not specified by Vieillot, but he does mention a difference between the male and female. There was only one specimen noted in the inventory catalogue (MNHN Laboratory, ZMO-GalOis 3) until another bird was donated by Temminck in 1841. The type locality is restricted to: West-Timor, near Kupang Bay (article 76a.2.A (ICZN 1999)). Vieillot named this species tricolor or ‘tricoloured’ (Jobling 2017).

Summary

Although no lists or diary entries exist on the bird specimens collected in Timor, this paper aims to give final clarity regarding type-specimens and type localities. The Maugé collection provides us with a rare view of the biodiversity of the location where the city of Kupang now stands. It is the largest city and port on the island of Timor, with an estimated population of 350.000 in 2011.

During his visit to Timor in 1801, René Maugé collected at least 153 specimens (61 species) (table 1). To date, 117 specimens still exist and are held in five European collections; the MNHN holds 91 specimens (77,7 %). There are 52 species new to science based on Maugé’s collection and 28 names are still in use. This study reveals that eight type-species were missed by Voisin and Voisin (1996, 1999, 2001, 2008, 2011, 2012, 2015) and in Voisin et al. (2004, 2005, 2008).

There is a possibility that additional specimens collected by Maugé on Timor may still be found and the author urges others to continue searching for such material.

Figure 1. 

MNHN A.C. 6490: Pedestal underside of Loxia fuscata. It shows a sticker glued. The same stickers are used on multiply specimens collected in either Australia and Timor. The handwriting is from Louis Dufresne and only used on specimens brought back with Le Naturaliste.

Figure 2. 

MNHN-ZO-2012-677: See figure 2. In addition, Timor is later added in another hand.

Acknowledgments

My thanks a due to the curators, volunteers and all other people involved with the Baudin expedition: Patrick Boussès, Jérôme Fuchs, Anne Previato and Claire Voisin (MNHN), Gabrielle Baglione, Jean Marc Argentin and Cédric Cremiere (Lé Hâvre, France), Brian Schmidt (National Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA), Agatha Jagerschmidt (Musée Boucher-de-Perthes, Abbeville, France), Renate Kothbauer, Martina Staufer, Melanie Pilat, Carina Nebel, Anita Gamauf and Hans-Martin Berg (NMW), Pepijn Kamminga, Steven D. van der Mije and C.S. (Kees) Roselaar (Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, The Netherlands), Maud Leyoudec (Musée Anne-de-Beaujeu and Maison Mantin, Moulins, France), Sandra Delaunay (Muséum-Aquarium de Nancy, France), Anne-Laure Paul (Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Blois, France), Bénédicte Percheron (Rouen, France), Alexandre Besard, Danièle Desvaux and Alain Pétiniot (Moulins, France), Thierry Kermanach (Muséum d’Histoire Naturelle, Rouen, France) and Bob McGowan (NMS). Many thanks also to Andrew Black and Colin Trainor for their help. The Museum für Naturkunde Berlin supported my research. But most of all I thank J. Pieter Michels and René W.R.J. Dekker for commenting on earlier drafts, and Renate van den Elzen and Anita Gamauf for useful comments.

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